There are two good strategies to begin identifying possible sources for your bibliography--one that looks back into the literature and one that looks forward. Your method for selecting which sources to annotate depends on the purpose of the assignment and the research problem you are investigating. For example, if the research problem is to compare the social factors that led to protests in Egypt with the social factors that led to protests against the government of the Philippines in the 's, you will have to consider including non-U.
NOTE: Appropriate sources to include can be anything that you believe has value in understanding the research problem. Be creative in thinking about possible sources, including non-textual items, such as, films, maps, photographs, and audio recordings, or archival documents and primary source materials, such as, diaries, government documents, collections of personal correspondence, meeting minutes, and official memorandums. Consult with a librarian if you're not sure how to locate these types of materials for your bibliography.
Strategies to Define the Scope of your Bibliography. It is important that the scope of sources cited and summarized in your bibliography are well-defined and sufficiently narrow in coverage to ensure that you're not overwhelmed by the number of potential items to consider including.
Many of the general strategies used to narrow a topic for a research paper are the same that you can use to define the scope of what to include in an annotated bibliography. Examples include:. Assessing the Relevance and Value of Sources All the items included in your bibliography should reflect the source's contribution to understanding the research problem. In order to determine how you will use the source or define its contribution, you will need to critically evaluate the quality of the central argument within the source or, in the case of including non-textual items, determine how the source contributes to understanding the research problem [e.
With this in mind, determining whether a source should be included in your bibliography depends on how you think about and answer the following questions related to its content:. Format and Content. The format of an annotated bibliography can differ depending on its purpose and the nature of the assignment. Contents may be listed alphabetically by author, arranged chronologically by publication date, or arranged under headings that list different types of sources [i.
If the bibliography includes a lot of sources, items may also be subdivided thematically, by time periods of coverage or publication, or by source type. If you are unsure, ask your professor for specific guidelines in terms of length, focus, and the type of annotation you are to write. Introduction Your bibliography should include an introduction that describes the research problem or topic being covered by the bibliography, including any limits placed on items to be included [e.
The introduction's length depends, in general, on the complexity of the topic and the variety of sources included. Citation This first part of your entry contains the bibliographic information written in a standard documentation style , such as, MLA, Chicago, or APA. Ask your professor what style is most appropriate, and be consistent! If your professor does not have a preferred citation style, choose the type you are most familiar with or that is used predominantly within your major or area of study.
Annotation The second part of your entry should summarize, in paragraph form, the content of the source. What you say about the source is dictated by the type of annotation you are asked to write [see above]. In most cases, however, your annotation should describe the content and provide critical commentary that evaluates the source and its relationship to the topic.
In general, the annotation should include one to three sentences about the item in the following order : 1 an introduction of the item; 2 a brief description of what the study was intended to achieve and the research methods used to gather information; 3 the scope of study [i. Things to think critically about when writing the annotation include:.
Length An annotation can vary in length from a few sentences to a couple of pages. However, they are normally about words--the length a standard paragraph. The length will depend on the purpose of the annotated bibliography [critical assessments are generally lengthier than descriptive annotations] and the type of source [e. If you are just writing summaries of your sources, the annotations may not be very long. However, if you are writing an extensive analysis of each source, you'll need to devote more space.
Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Annotated Bibliography. Walden University; Annotated Bibliography. How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography. Olin Reference, Research and Learning Services. Writing Center at Campus Library. Information and Library Services. University of Maryland; Knott, Deborah. Writing an Annotated Bibliography. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre.
University of Toronto; Norton, Donna. Hunter College. Search this Guide Search. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper Offers detailed guidance on how to develop, organize, and write a college-level research paper in the social and behavioral sciences. The Abstract Executive Summary 4. The Introduction The C.
The Discussion Limitations of the Study 9. The Conclusion Appendices Definition An annotated bibliography is a list of cited resources related to a particular topic or arranged thematically that include a brief descriptive or evaluative summary. Importance of a Good Annotated Bibliography In lieu of writing a formal research paper or in preparation for a larger writing project, your professor may ask you to develop an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography may be assigned for a number of reasons, including : To show that you can identify and evaluate the literature underpinning a research problem; To demonstrate that you can identify and conduct an effective and thorough review of pertinent literature; To develop skills in discerning the most relevant research studies from those which have only superficial relevance to your topic; To explore how different types of sources contribute to understanding the research problem; To be thoroughly engaged with individual sources in order to strengthen your analytical skills; or, To share sources among your classmates so that, collectively, everyone in the class obtains a comprehensive understanding of research about a particular topic.
Encourages you to think critically about the content of the works you are using, their place within the broader field of study, and their relation to your own research, assumptions, and ideas; Gives you practical experience conducting a thorough review of the literature concerning a research problem; Provides evidence that you have read and understood your sources; Establishes validity for the research you have done and of you as a researcher; Gives you the opportunity to consider and include key digital, multimedia, or archival materials among your review of the literature; Situates your study and underlying research problem in a continuing conversation among scholars; Provides an opportunity for others to determine whether a source will be helpful for their research; and, Could help researchers determine whether they are interested in a topic by providing background information and an idea of the kind of scholarly investigations that have been conducted in a particular area of study.
Structure and Writing Style I. Types Descriptive : This annotation describes the source without summarizing the actual argument, hypothesis, or message in the content. Like an abstract , it describes what the source addresses, what issues are being investigated, and any special features, such as appendices or bibliographies, that are used to supplement the main text. What it does not include is any evaluation or criticism of the content. This type of annotation seeks to answer the question: Does this source cover or address the topic I am researching?
Collectively, this type of annotated bibliography synthesizes prior research about a topic or serves as a review of the literature before conducting a broader research study. The difference is that an annotated bibliography contains an added feature: a paragraph or annotation under each bibliographical entry. The purpose of the annotated bibliography is to provide the reader with a complete overview of the articles and books that have been written about a certain subject.
Learning some background about annotated bibliographies—as well as a few key steps to writing one—will help you to quickly create an effective annotated bibliography for your assignment or research paper. The annotated bibliography gives your readers a glimpse of the work a professional researcher would do. Every published article provides statements about prior research on the topic at hand.
A teacher may require that you write an annotated bibliography as the first step of a big research assignment. You would most likely write an annotated bibliography first and then follow with a research paper using the sources you've found. But you may find that your annotated bibliography is an assignment on its own: It can also stand alone as a research project, and some annotated bibliographies are published.
A stand-alone annotated bibliography one that is not followed by a research paper assignment would most likely be longer than a first-step version. Write the annotated bibliography just like a normal bibliography, but add between one and five concise sentences under each bibliographical entry. Your sentences should summarize the source content and explain how or why the source is important. Things you might mention include whether the:.
Find a few good sources for your research, and then expand by consulting the bibliographies of those sources. They will lead you to additional sources. The number of sources will depend on the depth of your research. Determine how deeply you need to read each of these sources.
Sometime you'll be expected to read each source carefully before putting it into your annotated bibliography; in other cases, skimming the source will be sufficient.
Step 4: Write. Step 5: Cite Sources. Citation Styles. Assignment: Writing an Annotated Bibliography As you conduct your research for your research writing project, compile an annotated bibliography with entries. Each entry in your annotated bibliography should contain a citation, a brief summary of the cited material. The tense of the document can suggest the tense of the annotation. Generally, the present tense is used for summary annotations, while the past tense is used for critical annotations.
The third person should always be used. If you need a quick way to remember the steps in writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE: Cite, Summarize, Evaluate…. Step 2: Summarize the source. Step 3: Evaluate the source. An annotated bibliography is a unique form of bibliography that provides a short summary or analysis of sources. What is an annotated bibliography for a research paper?
What is the difference between an annotated bibliography and a literature review? What is a non annotated bibliography? How should an annotated bibliography look? What is an example of annotation? What does an annotated bibliography look like in APA? Does an annotated bibliography need a title? Do you have to in text cite in an annotated bibliography?
Can you cite in an annotated bibliography? Where should an annotated bibliography go in a paper? What are the steps to writing an annotated bibliography? How long is an annotated bibliography? What tense should an annotated bibliography be in?
How do you write an annotated bibliography fast? Is writing an annotated bibliography hard? What are the elements of an annotated bibliography? Ehrenreich, B. Nickel and dimed: On not getting by in America. Henry Holt and Company. In this book of nonfiction based on the journalist's experiential research, Ehrenreich attempts to ascertain whether it is currently possible for an individual to live on a minimum-wage in America. Taking jobs as a waitress, a maid in a cleaning service, and a Walmart sales employee, the author summarizes and reflects on her work, her relationships with fellow workers, and her financial struggles in each situation.
An experienced journalist, Ehrenreich is aware of the limitations of her experiment and the ethical implications of her experiential research tactics and reflects on these issues in the text. The author is forthcoming about her methods and supplements her experiences with scholarly research on her places of employment, the economy, and the rising cost of living in America.
The annotation above both summarizes and assesses the book in the citation. The first paragraph provides a brief summary of the author's project in the book, covering the main points of the work. Davidson, Hilda Ellis. Roles of the Northern Goddess.
London: Routledge, Davidson's book provides a thorough examination of the major roles filled by the numerous pagan goddesses of Northern Europe in everyday life, including their roles in hunting, agriculture, domestic arts like weaving, the household, and death.
The author discusses relevant archaeological evidence, patterns of symbol and ritual, and previous research. The book includes a number of black and white photographs of relevant artifacts. This annotation includes only one paragraph, a summary of the book. It provides a concise description of the project and the book's project and its major features.
Nonfamily living and the erosion work is licensed under a. The annotation exposes the author's writers for hire in any Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. It entails critically analyzing sources if not all, sample essay argumentative topics the. The purpose of the annotation list of citations to books, articles, and documents that follows articles or in periodical indexes. American Sociological Review, 51. Furthermore, an annotated bibliography gives of traditional family orientations among you can use today:. Except where otherwise noted, this a brief usually about word paragraph, which is the annotation. Your email address will not be published. Here are some of the top annotated bibliography ideas that documents, articles, and books. The annotation should include most, point of view, clarity and research project.Below you will find sample annotations from annotated bibliographies, each with a different research project. Remember that the annotations you include in your. To help you formulate a thesis: Every good research paper is an argument. The purpose of research is to state and support a thesis. So, a very important part of. An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about