formal outline examples for a research paper

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Formal outline examples for a research paper

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When you are finished with pre-writing activities, created a good research paper topic, you are more than ready to make an effective research paper outline. An outline is a basement of your research paper from which you build up the whole paper. Each outline consists of three main parts the Introduction, the Body, and the Conclusion. For a successful and high-quality research paper, however, the more detailed outline you use the better.

The introduction is an important part of every academic work. It determines whether a reader is going to continue with your paper or just give it a rest. An introduction should be intriguing, engaging, and informative, although without giving away too much. There are three main points that make an impressive Introduction:. The Body is the main part of the research paper outline you are writing. It has no volume limitation, as it is the biggest and main section of the paper. The quantity of paragraphs for this part depends on overall requested volume of the research paper: the more arguments you have to support the bigger Body section there should be.

All the evidence you have found during the research should go here. You state each idea and provide efficient evidence. Do not state something you have no ways of proving! Each statement you give has to be backed up with the proof. Do not forget about valid references and proper citation according to the required paper format.

You can mention counterarguments to your ideas and provide evidence why they are not correct. Opposing facts prove your deep knowledge on the topic and that you have really conducted a thorough research. This will show your commitment to the challenging tasks and create quite an impressive academic reputation.

Do not forget about the style and the tone of your research paper, which you have stated in the introduction. The paper should be consistent from the beginning to the very end. The manner, pattern, and techniques should be the same throughout the paper. However, remember to be creative and use various language techniques to make your paper interesting to read.

Take into consideration that there is a high chance that your professor knows everything about the subject. Nonetheless, your paper needs to be addressed to the reader unfamiliar with the topic and the thesis statement of your choice.

This again will show your deep knowledge on the matter. Be sure to explain everything clearly without sounding too dull in the process. Show me examples. The conclusive part of the research paper has to summarize the arguments so the readers digest the main idea and remember it for a long time. Remember that the main purpose of the research paper is to show your abilities to work by yourself and demonstrate the range of your knowledge on various topics. Creating a good outline is essential in a further composing of your research paper.

Make sure to take notes when conducting a research, do not be afraid to ask for assistance and read additional resources. Edusson is the trusted provider of content solutions and matches customers with highly qualified writers for sample writing, academic editing, and business writing. Connect with a professional writer within minutes by placing your first order. No matter the subject, difficulty, academic level or document type, our writers have the skills to complete it.

No spam ever. Before writing an research paper outline: Select an appropriate topic. Selecting a topic is a crucial factor for a successful research paper. Whether you select a topic yourself or not, it should work to your strengths and not weaknesses.

An appropriate topic should be interesting to you and appeal to or provoke readers. As to choosing the best essay topics for your research paper, we have professional writers, who offer personalized help or even essay writing service if you need it. State your argument. After selecting a topic, take some time to figure out what kind of argument you want to support. You need to understand why it is important to you and why it might be important to others.

The rest of the body of your paper will be made up of more major and minor points. Each major point should advance the paper's central argument, often building on the previous points, until you have provided enough evidence and analysis to justify your paper's conclusion.

Your conclusion both restates your paper's major claim and ties that claim into a larger discussion. Rather than simply reiterating each major and minor point, quickly revisit your thesis statement and focus on ending the paper by tying your thesis into current research in your field, next steps for other researchers, your broader studies, or other future implications. Note that this video was created while APA 6 was the style guide edition in use.

There may be some examples of writing that have not been updated to APA 7 guidelines. Didn't find what you need? Search our website or email us. Read our website accessibility and accommodation statement. Writing a Paper: Outlining. Print Page Report a broken link. Outlining Strategies Outlining your first draft by listing each paragraph's topic sentence can be an easy way to ensure that each of your paragraphs is serving a specific purpose in your paper.

Example Outline The following outline is for a page paper discussing the link between educational attainment and health. Introduction A. Current Problem: Educational attainment rates are decreasing in the United States while healthcare costs are increasing. Key Terms: healthy, well-educated Thesis Statement: Because of their income deficit cite sources and general susceptibility to depression cite sources , students who drop out of high school before graduation maintain a higher risk for physical and mental health problems later in life.

Background A. Historical Employment Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were frequently unionized and adequately compensated for their work cite sources. Historical Healthcare Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were often provided adequate healthcare and benefits cite sources. Current Link between Education and Employment Type: Increasingly, uneducated workers work in unskilled or low-skilled jobs cite sources. Gaps in the Research: Little information exists exploring the health implications of the current conditions in low-skilled jobs.

Minor Point 1: Unskilled work environments are correlated highly with worker injury cite sources. Minor Point 2: Unskilled work environments rarely provide healthcare or adequate injury recovery time cite sources. Major Point 2: Conditions of employment affect workers' mental health A. Minor Point 1: Employment in a low-skilled position is highly correlated with dangerous levels of stress cite sources.

Minor Point 2: Stress is highly correlated with mental health issues cite sources. Minor Point 1: Mental health problems and physical health problems are highly correlated cite sources. Minor Point 2: Stress manifests itself in physical form cite sources VI. Minor Point 1: Many high-school dropouts face financial problems cite sources. Conclusion A. Restatement of Thesis: Students who drop out of high school are at a higher risk for both mental and physical health problems throughout their lives.

Next Steps: Society needs educational advocates; educators need to be aware of this situation and strive for student retention in order to promote healthy lifestyles and warn students of the risks associated with dropping out of school. Sample Thesis Statement: Because of their income deficit Smith, and general susceptibility to depression Jones, , students who drop out of high school before graduation maintain a higher risk for physical and mental health problems later in life.

Background After the initial introduction, background on your topic often follows.

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Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Read More. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Login Sign Up. Skip to main content.

Discover 44 more articles on this topic. Don't miss these related articles:. Back to Overview "Write a Paper". Next Article » "Research Question". Full reference:. Want to stay up to date? Follow us! Follow ExplorableMind. Footer bottom Explorable. Check Out the Official Book Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Read More also available as ebook.

Save this course for later Don't have time for it all now? Add to my courses. Additional Info Links. Complete Collection. Like Explorable? Take it with you wherever you go. Thank you to Innovation Norway. And minor ideas are designated by lowercase letters a, b, c, d, and so on. Here is an example of the proper form of an outline:.

The presumption behind this arrangement is obvious: You do not merely generalize; you support your contentions and propositions with examples and details. Indeed, that is exactly what you are expected to do—to make assertions that are supported by concrete examples and specific details.

If you have not been diligent in gathering specific facts about your topic, this deficiency will now be painfully obvious. Notice that every subdivided category must have at least two sections because it is impossible to divide anything into fewer than two parts. An outline that divides the subject into three or four levels—that is, down to examples or details—generally is adequate for most college research papers.

If further subdivisions are necessary, the format is as follows:. The basic principle remains the same: Larger ideas or elements are stacked to the left, with smaller ideas or elements to the right. The logic of an outline requires that each entry be based on the same organizing principle as another entry of equal rank. All capital-letter entries consequently must be equivalent in importance and derived from the same organizing principle.

Notice the absence of equal ranking in the following example:. Rousseau gave the people a new government to work toward. It would be a government based on the general will. The new government would serve the people instead of the people serving the government. Entry C is out of place because it is not of equal rank with entries A and B. A and B are sub-ideas that characterize the new government proposed by Rousseau; C is a statement that describes the revolt of the French people against the old government.

The clarity and readability of an outline are improved if its entries are worded in similar grammatical form. Notice the lack of parallelism in the following outline:. C should be reworded to make it grammatically like entries A and B:. The three main types of outlines are the topic outline, the sentence outline, and the paragraph outline. Never mix or combine the different formats in a research paper: use one type of outline exclusively.

The topic outline words each entry as a phrase, breaking down the subject into major subheadings. Topic outlines are particularly useful for outlining relatively simple subjects. Here is a topic outline of the paper on Grigori Rasputin:. Thesis : After six decades of being judged a demoniacal libertine, Rasputin now deserves to be viewed from another point of view—as a man who was intensely religious, who passionately desired peace, and who was deeply devoted to his family and friends.

Notice that the thesis of the research paper is a separate entry immediately after the title. It is also customary to omit introduction and conclusion entries. The sentence outline uses a complete sentence for each entry. Some instructors allow the entries to be worded as questions, but most prefer declarative sentences. Sentence outlines are especially well suited for complex subjects. Here is a sentence outline of the research paper on Grigori Rasputin:.

The birth of Rasputin coincided with a shooting star. The popular historical view of Rasputin portrays him as primarily evil. Detractors called him a satyr and charged that his depraved faithful were merely in awe of his sexual endowments. He wanted a tsar who would stand up for the peasantry. Because of his humanitarian spirit, he was opposed to all wars. The paragraph outline records each entry as a complete paragraph, in effect producing a condensed version of the research paper.

This form is useful mainly for long papers whose individual sections can be summarized in whole paragraphs; it is seldom recommended by instructors for ordinary college papers. Here is the Rasputin paper in the form of a paragraph outline:. Rasputin himself always attached great significance to the fact that at the time of his birth, a shooting star was seen streaking across the horizon.

He considered the phenomenon to be an omen that he was fated to have influence and special powers. The popular historical view of Rasputin paints him primarily as evil.

Below are examples of research paper outlines.

Formal outline examples for a research paper It would take too long for the people in the executive position to make decision in an emergency, because they might disagree. The purpose of this section is to justify your own project or paper by pointing out a gap in the current research which your work will address. The most basic outline format consists on: introduction, a minimum of three topic paragraphs, and a conclusion. An abstract will briefly state the information contained within the paper, results of the research, and the conclusion. When formal outline examples for a research paper are finished with pre-writing activities, created a good research paper topic, you are more than ready to make an effective research paper outline. If your main idea does not have enough support, you should consider presenting another main idea in its place. Americans realized the inherent fallacies of hereditary government specifically monarchy as well as the English Constitution which protected the monarchy.
Formal outline examples for a research paper 761
Compare contrast subjects essay Next Article » "Research Question". Sample Background: A background section on a paper on education and health might include an overview of recent research in this area, such as research on depression or on decreasing high school graduation rates. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Loss of on line homework textbook answers nationally B. APA requires a title page and abstract. How can I build a research paper on this argument? An outline is a basement of your research paper from which you build up the whole paper.
Formal outline examples for a research paper Higher english example critical essay
Professional papers editing websites for phd An appropriate topic should be interesting to you and appeal to or provoke readers. Gaps in the Research: Little information exists exploring the health implications of the current conditions in low-skilled jobs. The dates of the ratification of the Constitution by the States. Your headings should be divided into two or more subsections. If your main idea does not have enough support, you should consider presenting another main idea in its place. It should also be obvious which secondaery points belong under which main points.
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Formal outline examples for a research paper Each outline consists of three main parts the Introduction, the Body, and the Conclusion. As the name implies, it identifies all the little mini-topics that your paper will comprise, and shows how they relate. Minor points develop the nuances of your major points but may not be significant enough to warrant extended attention on their own. The purpose, in other words, of doing this work is not to make work for you, but to save you work in the long run by breaking the job down into smaller, manageable tasks. A research paper outline is a useful tool to aid in the writing processproviding a structure to follow with all information to be included in the paper clearly organized.

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If the outline needs to subdivide beyond these divisions, use Arabic numerals inside parentheses and then lowercase letters inside parentheses. The sample PDF in the Media Box above is an example of an outline that a student might create before writing an essay. In order to organize her thoughts and make sure that she has not forgotten any key points that she wants to address, she creates the outline as a framework for her essay.

Your instructor asks the class to write an expository explanatory essay on the typical steps a high school student would follow in order to apply to college. When applying to college, a student follows a certain process which includes choosing the right schools and preparing the application materials.

The full sentence outline format is essentially the same as the Alphanumeric outline. The main difference as the title suggests is that full sentences are required at each level of the outline. This outline is most often used when preparing a traditional essay. A research paper has to reflect your position on the topic and persuade the readers in its accuracy and truthfulness.

A research paper outline is a helpful point-by-point plan, which makes your research paper writing easier. However, before proceeding to an outline you will have to take some pre-writing steps. They will be helpful in composing the best quality outline and, as a result, a great academic work. When you are finished with pre-writing activities, created a good research paper topic, you are more than ready to make an effective research paper outline.

An outline is a basement of your research paper from which you build up the whole paper. Each outline consists of three main parts the Introduction, the Body, and the Conclusion. For a successful and high-quality research paper, however, the more detailed outline you use the better. The introduction is an important part of every academic work.

It determines whether a reader is going to continue with your paper or just give it a rest. An introduction should be intriguing, engaging, and informative, although without giving away too much. There are three main points that make an impressive Introduction:. The Body is the main part of the research paper outline you are writing.

It has no volume limitation, as it is the biggest and main section of the paper. The quantity of paragraphs for this part depends on overall requested volume of the research paper: the more arguments you have to support the bigger Body section there should be. All the evidence you have found during the research should go here. You state each idea and provide efficient evidence.

Do not state something you have no ways of proving! Each statement you give has to be backed up with the proof. Do not forget about valid references and proper citation according to the required paper format. You can mention counterarguments to your ideas and provide evidence why they are not correct. Opposing facts prove your deep knowledge on the topic and that you have really conducted a thorough research. This will show your commitment to the challenging tasks and create quite an impressive academic reputation.

Do not forget about the style and the tone of your research paper, which you have stated in the introduction. The paper should be consistent from the beginning to the very end. The manner, pattern, and techniques should be the same throughout the paper. However, remember to be creative and use various language techniques to make your paper interesting to read.

Take into consideration that there is a high chance that your professor knows everything about the subject. Nonetheless, your paper needs to be addressed to the reader unfamiliar with the topic and the thesis statement of your choice. This again will show your deep knowledge on the matter.

Be sure to explain everything clearly without sounding too dull in the process. Show me examples. The conclusive part of the research paper has to summarize the arguments so the readers digest the main idea and remember it for a long time. Remember that the main purpose of the research paper is to show your abilities to work by yourself and demonstrate the range of your knowledge on various topics.

Creating a good outline is essential in a further composing of your research paper. Make sure to take notes when conducting a research, do not be afraid to ask for assistance and read additional resources. Edusson is the trusted provider of content solutions and matches customers with highly qualified writers for sample writing, academic editing, and business writing. Connect with a professional writer within minutes by placing your first order.

No matter the subject, difficulty, academic level or document type, our writers have the skills to complete it. No spam ever. Before writing an research paper outline: Select an appropriate topic. Selecting a topic is a crucial factor for a successful research paper. Whether you select a topic yourself or not, it should work to your strengths and not weaknesses.

An appropriate topic should be interesting to you and appeal to or provoke readers.