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Brexit Check what you need to do. Explore the topic Equality Research and development. Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful. Thank you for your feedback. Report a problem with this page. One explanation could be that male crime diminishes female confidence. In this study we use a unique data set of around 1,, results of marathon runners to measure gender difference in OC in around 70 countries.
We correlate these country-level indicators with a number of variables measuring gender relations in several socio-economic dimensions, notably gender equality indices and measures of gap in the entrepreneurship, as well as cultural and economic indicators. Although gender gap in OC correlates consistently with a number of measures of gender inequality more equal countries typically show more similar OC levels of males and females , these effects are not significant when corrected for multiple comparisons.
This does not mean that gender inequality is not related to gender-specific OC at all. Smoking represents a case in point here. In the US and many other countries smoking was very common among men and very rare among women around or so, but the gap essentially disappeared by [ 48 ].
This tectonic shift had much to do with the feminist movement [ 49 , 50 ]. Fortunately, we find the opposite to be true. In more gender-equal countries both genders tend to become somewhat less overconfident. Again, our results are merely correlations. We do not have panel data to identify timing of the changes nor any sources of exogenous variation in any of our variables.
Clearly, both of them would be highly desirable in future studies. Another interesting possibility for further research would be to investigate other dimensions of social inequity. For example, our previous research [ 3 ] found sizeable, nonmonotonic age effects, with the youngest and the oldest displaying highest OC. Made with Natural Earth. Free vector and raster map data naturalearthdata. Countries with no data are left white with no name tag.
Europe is the only region with a large concentration of countries, for which we do have data. Estimates resulting from an OLS regression of Slowdown on the male dummy and country dummies interacted with both gender dummies taking the US as base category , additionally controlling for age, race-specific dummies and the km split time. Of course, including the US male OC and thus US gap in all the national gaps makes no difference for the correlations, as it is a constant.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Using a large dataset of marathon runners, we estimate country- and gender-specific proxies for overconfidence.
Introduction Studies in judgment and decision-making sometimes find systematic differences between genders. Related literature This project is related to several strands of literature. The method Our previous paper [ 3 ] proposed a proxy for OC in marathon runners: the Slowdown measure, defined as whereby the 21km split is the time it took the runner to cover the first half of the distance. Results We calculate Spearman correlations between our measure of OC and the indicators listed above.
Download: PPT. Table 1. Correlation coefficients between country-level indicators and gender gap in OC, male and female OC. Gender gap in OC We start with the discussion of the significant correlations with the gender gap Table 1 , column 1. Male and female OC An alternative look at the data is to correlate country-level male and, separately, female OC with the country characteristics listed before Table 1 , columns 4 and 7. Conclusion In this study we use a unique data set of around 1,, results of marathon runners to measure gender difference in OC in around 70 countries.
Supporting information. S1 Dataset. S1 Fig. Gender gaps in OC in Europe. S1 Table. Summary statistics for the marathon data by location. S2 Table. S3 Table. Data sources. References 1. The weirdest people in the world? Behav Brain Sci. The Trouble With Overconfidence. Psychol Rev. Krawczyk M, Wilamowski M. Evidence from One Million Marathon Participants.
J Behav Decis Mak. View Article Google Scholar 4. Gender and overconfidence. Econ Lett. View Article Google Scholar 5. Krawczyk M. To answer or not to answer? A field test of loss aversion. Work Pap. View Article Google Scholar 6. Baldiga K.
Gender differences in willingness to guess. Manage Sci. View Article Google Scholar 7. J Educ Psychol. View Article Google Scholar 8. Stankov L, Lee J. Overconfidence Across World Regions. J Cross Cult Psychol. View Article Google Scholar 9. Gender and overconfidence: Are girls really overconfident? Appl Econ Lett. View Article Google Scholar Beyer S, Bowden EM. Gender differences in self-perceptions: Convergent evidence from three measures of accuracy and bias. Personal Soc Psychol Bull.
Director gender and mergers and acquisitions. J Corp Financ. Barber BM, Odean T. Boys will be boys: Gender, overconfidence, and common stock investment. Q J Econ. Overconfidence in wargames: Experimental evidence on expectations, aggression, gender and testosterone. Lenney E. Psychol Bull. Lirgg CD. J Sport Exerc Psychol. Gender differences in performance predictions: Evidence from the cognitive reflection test. Front Psychol. Beliefs about gender. Am Econ Rev. Overconfidence is universal?
Elicitation of genuine overconfidence EGO procedure reveals systematic differences across domain, task knowledge, and incentives in four populations. PLoS One. Wohleber RW, Matthews G. Multiple facets of overconfidence: Implications for driving safety. Age, sex, and finish time as determinants of pacing in the marathon. J Strength Cond Res. Influence of sex and level on marathon pacing strategy. Insights from the New York City race.
Int J Sports Med. Effects of heat stress and sex on pacing in marathon runners. Men are more likely than women to slow in the marathon. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Hubble C, Zhao J. Gender differences in marathon pacing and performance prediction. J Sport Anal. Smyth B. Fast starters and slow finishers: A large-scale data analysis of pacing at the beginning and end of the marathon for recreational runners. Task difficulty and overconfidence. Evidence from distance running. J Econ Psychol. Risk taking runners slow more in the marathon.
Acker D, Duck NW. Cross-cultural overconfidence and biased self-attribution. J Socio Econ. Overconfidence across cultures. Collabra Psychol. Student entrepreneurial optimism and overconfidence across cultures. National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Culture, Gender, and Math. Science McDaniel A. Cross-national gender gaps in educational expectations: The influence of national-level gender ideology and educational systems.
Comp Educ Rev. Cross-national variation of gender differences in adolescent subjective health in Europe and North America. Soc Sci Med. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: Does country-level gender equality matter?
Gender differences in subjective well-being: Comparing societies with respect to gender equality. Soc Indic Res. Meisenberg G, Woodley MA. J Happiness Stud. Gender and Culture Differences in Emotion. Joyner MJ. Modeling: Optimal marathon performance on the basis of physiological factors.
J Appl Physiol. Andersen JJ. The State of Running Sex Roles. Schnabel L. Stoet G, Geary DC. Psychol Sci. A simplified approach to measuring national gender inequality. Anxiety, Overconfidence, and Excessive Risk Taking. Religiosity and risk-taking in international banking. J Behav Exp Financ. J Bus Financ Account. Trends in smoking among adults from to The Minnesota heart survey. American Journal of Public Health.
Amos A, Haglund M. Tob Control.
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Rent this content from DeepDyve. Rent from DeepDyve. If you think you should have access to this content, click to contact our support team. In addition to mentoring, which provides mentees with career advice by peers at more advanced career stages, some departments are establishing sponsorship schemes, whereby members of staff are paired with senior level members of staff who have a vested interest in their career success and advocate on their behalf.
Departments organise workshops, coffee mornings, peer support groups and subject-specific events to help students and early career researches as well as professional and support staff to make informed career choices. The main focus of support with career development of academic and research staff is on securing external research funding and establishing independence.
Departments provide methodological training, administrative support and internal peer review, and help develop interview skills for fellowship and grant applications, commit internal funding and support of senior researchers to develop applications, and seek to increase teaching opportunities for junior researchers. Athena SWAN helps to improve arrangements for flexible and part-time working for all genders and groups of staff.
Departmental action plans include interventions to promote the value of flexible and part-time working, raise awareness about the existing arrangements, formalise them through policies and guidelines as well as extend to graduate research students. Athena SWAN has prompted departments to provide more support to women with managing maternity and other career breaks as well as to introduce paternity and shared parental leave policies aimed at men.
Departmental action plans contain further actions to improve the implementation of the existing policies and to commit resources to helping academic and research staff to return to research following a career break or a period of leave for caring responsibilities. Departments work to enhance the provision of childcare in their specific locations and help staff to reconcile work and family life more broadly. Many departments improve information about available childcare services, invest into the provision of parking, breastfeeding facilities and sponsored nursery places, and try to create a more family-friendly environment.
Departments actively seek to embed the principles promoted by Athena SWAN into key processes and decision-making points by considering equality, diversity and inclusion as part of their values and identity, norms and procedures, social events, and working environments. Many actions to promote equality and inclusion focus on improving the transparency of departmental structures and decision-making, enabling equal access to key people and resources, and diversifying internal communication strategies.
Notify staff through the Weekly News that minutes have been published. Use multiple methods to give feedback on key issues including summarizing decisions in the department newsletter and at the termly Department open meeting. The Athena SWAN process provides departments with the opportunity to strengthen their core human resource policies to create a more positive culture for everyone.
Most notably, all departments strive to eradicate bullying and harassment from the workplace by raising awareness of zero tolerance of bullying and harassment and providing resources to address it. Another important human resources policy that many departments introduce as part of the Athena SWAN process is mandatory unconscious bias training.
In addition to online training provided by the University, departments develop in-house online and in-person training and ensure completion by staff and students. Monitor compliance with compulsory training requirements. Include training records in staff database to check compulsory requirements.
All departments work towards improving gender balance on committees but with a varying degree of ambition. Whereas some departments aim to improve gender balance relative to the proportion of group leaders, others open up membership to all students and staff aiming to achieve absolute gender balance. Aim to keep slightly ahead of simple proportion of female group leaders. Monitor committee membership and attendance records.
Rotate membership and chairs, with future vacancies appointed by advertisement and election. Monitor the reasons for requests to opt-out of committee membership. The Athena SWAN process challenges departments to develop a fair and transparent workload allocation model, monitor it for gender bias, and use it for personal development review and promotion. Different departments are at different stages of implementing such a model and, in the majority of departments, it remains limited to academic and research staff.
We will publicise our workload model within the University by arranging a workshop with other Departments in [Medical Sciences] and other Divisions to discuss best practice. This will also feed into refining our model. Increase the transparency of workloads. As part of Athena SWAN bronze awards, the majority of departments have addressed the timing of departmental meetings and social events to make them possible to attend for staff with caring responsibilities and working part-time.
Several departments, especially clinical ones, continue to reinforce the importance of inclusivity for all meetings and events. All departments take action to promote the visibility of role models and build gender equality and diversity into the organisation of events and online materials.
This encourages departments to improve and reward outreach activities. Figure 2 synthesises and visually represents the analysis of Athena SWAN Silver action plans pertaining to complexity. Namely, Fig. The systemic approach embraced herewith allows us to take a holistic view, considering that all parts of the system are interlinked. We thus consider the complex system in which the Athena SWAN scheme operates, acknowledging its non-linear character and the multitude of variables at play.
In what follows, we narratively synthesise our findings around two major themes that emerged from our analysis, namely 1 dynamic linkage of departmental action plans to a multi-layered context and 2 system-level organisation with positive feedback loops and new emergent properties. Departmental action plans are dynamically linked to the wider social, economic and political context, the higher education and research sector, and the university, which constitute a complex system.
The widespread development and implementation of Athena SWAN Silver action plans resulted from the changes in the social, political and economic context. Namely, the social progress imperative to improve gender equity in biomedical research prompted the government Department of Health to introduce NIHR funding incentives, in response to which the university and departments developed and implemented Athena SWAN Bronze action plans. The latter is particularly important because the prevailing academic culture and career structure influences the range of possibilities for change within individual universities.
Hence, collective efforts of the entire higher education and research sector are often required to enable changes within individual universities. The context of individual universities is equally important because university rules, procedures, and both formal and informal norms of behaviour shape the range of interventions that departments can implement to remove barriers to career progression and gender equality within departments.
Interactions among the five types of actions in departmental action plans create a system-level organisation with positive feedback loops and new emergent properties. Firstly, departmental self-assessment teams continuously assess data and evaluate the implementation of actions and their short- and medium-term impact. In response to the changing contextual factors and emerging evidence, they adapt on-going actions and develop new ones. In doing so, actions aimed at self-assessment and monitoring not only determine which actions are included in the action plan but also regulate their implementation.
In a complex system such as Athena SWAN, the agents of change are interconnected and affect each other. Thus, small alterations initiated by the self-assessment team can lead to larger effects at a later point in time as, at critical points, small changes may have great impact [ 37 ]. Impact is often indirect and long-term [ 57 ]. The production of impact is closely connected to the ability of a programme to foster the right conditions for change. This implies that increased probability of change may be part of the expected impact of complex interventions [ 58 ].
In line with the distinction made between complicated interventions, which have many but foreseen components, and the Athena SWAN as a complex intervention — characterised by non-linearity, uncertainty and emergence — the expected impact of Athena SWAN needs to be considered in terms of how the programme fosters conditions for change and increases the probability that change can occur in the particular context of the medical sciences departments [ 35 ]. Secondly, given that organisation and culture enable and constrain all interactions in the department, actions aimed at changing departmental organisation and culture also influence the other types of actions that adapt in response to the changing organisation and culture.
There are multiple choices to make for staff and students that are subject to a range of contextual conditions, structural resistances and other constraints that impact career progression. Thirdly, actions aimed at flexible working and managing career breaks also dynamically interact with the other types of actions, in particular, with key career transition points and career development opportunities for staff and students taking advantages of flexible working arrangements and those taking career breaks.
In complex systems, actions of different agents of change, such as individual choices of staff and students in terms of training activities, careers, courses, etc. Finally, as more career development opportunities and better conditions for career progression through key career transition points emerge as a result of the implementation of action plans, key career transition points come faster and the chances of progressing to the next career stage in the new emergent conditions increase.
Moreover, in contrast to complicated systems, complex systems are adaptive, which in this particular context means that they respond to the changes initiated through Athena SWAN. In this respect, Athena SWAN action plans adapt to constantly moving targets and consider new emergent conditions. In order to further explore the strengths and opportunities to expand the scheme, we have analysed the Athena SWAN interventions in a comparative European perspective based on a typology of gender equality interventions in research and innovation developed within the EU Horizon project EFFORTI [ 59 ].
As pointed out above, this is not a full-fledged comparative analysis but rather a comparison of the Athena SWAN scheme with the state of the art regarding types of gender equality interventions, generated in the frame of the EFFORTI project. Footnote 3 An overview of the EFFORTI typology of gender equality interventions in research and innovation has been elaborated elsewhere [ 46 ] and is summarised in Additional file 1.
While gender equality interventions in the European Research Area tend to focus primarily on women in academic and research roles, Athena SWAN has a broader focus on all categories of staff and students, predominantly, regardless of their gender, taking into account considerations of intersectionality such as sexuality, race, disability, age and religion. Athena SWAN also has a more contextually embedded, country-wide systemic approach to action planning than any other single gender equality scheme in Europe, especially with regard to system-level interventions related to institutionalised SATs, considerations of intersectionality, key career transition points, career development, mandatory training on unconscious bias and bullying and harassment, timing of meeting and events, and a workload allocation model.
Whereas some European countries intervene to introduce quotas, chairs and positions reserved to women, funding for female researchers, and single-sex degree and specialisation courses, Athena SWAN does not promote such interventions because, under the United Kingdom Equality Act , they may be interpreted as positive discrimination and therefore deemed unlawful.
Moreover, Athena SWAN misses the opportunity to promote the integration of sex and gender dimension in research and education, which is particularly important both in the wider European Research Area and globally. Together with fostering gender balance in research teams and in decision-making, integrating the gender dimension in research and education is one of three key objectives for promoting gender equality in research and innovation in Europe [ 32 ]. Footnote 4 Since , the EC has also supported the development of the European Gender Medicine Network, which provides a framework for the inclusion of sex and gender in health research.
Promoting the integration of sex and gender analysis in research and education represents a strategic opportunity to strengthen Athena SWAN in the given research-intensive study setting. There is a growing body of evidence on how the incorporation of sex and gender in research leads to better healthcare [ 67 ] or how the disregard of gender aspects [ 68 , 69 , 70 ] leads to suboptimal, sometimes harmful healthcare [ 52 , 65 , 71 ].
Many other health research funders worldwide have also introduced policies that require that all grant applicants consider sex and gender variables in research design [ 73 ]. Likewise, the European Association of Science Editors has introduced the Sex and Gender Equity in Research guidelines to maximise the generalisability and applicability of research findings to clinical practice [ 74 ].
The Sex and Gender Equity in Research guidelines help editors and researchers to ensure the adequate reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analysis, results and interpretations of findings [ 75 , 76 ]. Moreover, in a recent commentary on editorial policies, the Lancet proposed guidelines for medical journals, accounting for the use of sex and gender and reporting of sex, gender or both in study participants and the sex of animals and cells [ 77 ].
In , the League of European Research Universities presented 20 recommendations on how to integrate sex and gender into the research process, research funding, curricula and clinical practice [ 78 ]. Including sex and gender analysis in the curricula of medical sciences courses helps students improve their study design, analysis and reporting skills [ 65 ], and gender-sensitive curricula, portraying gender in a non-stereotypical way, may make academic and research careers in medical sciences more attractive to all irrespective of gender [ 79 ].
Despite a growing body of literature on the design, implementation and impact of gender equality interventions, there is a paucity of research on the complexity of gender equality interventions based on extensive empirical data [ 35 ].
To address this paucity of research, we embraced the complexity approach and analysed 16 departmental Athena SWAN Silver action plans in medical sciences at the University of Oxford. Our analysis demonstrates that the Athena SWAN Silver action plans conform to the key considerations of complexity and thus can be usefully framed as complex social interventions embedded in a complex system. Firstly, addressing a specific area of gender inequality is not enough in complex systems when designing gender equality interventions as a variety of interconnected factors are involved in the process [ 80 ].
The efficacy of gender equality interventions depends not only on the quality [ 12 , 81 ] but also on the quantity of the measures implemented [ 82 ]. Athena SWAN provides a dynamic multifaceted systemic design and implementation process to address cultural and structural aspects of gender inequality in accordance with the needs, baseline conditions and emerging circumstances in the participating departments.
Overall, the 16 medical sciences departments implement actions organised into five themes and 22 subthemes. Actions are tailored to the specific departmental contexts and vary greatly in design, target populations, areas of intervention and pace of implementation.
Within departments, many actions are attuned to the context of different departmental divisions, institutes, centres, units and research groups. Given that most of the departments are embedded in the context of hospitals and clinical facilities, actions vary between different medical specialties and basic science areas.
Moreover, departments are often distributed across several campuses and physical locations, adding another layer of complexity to action planning. Secondly, the complexity approach embraces the notion of the non-linearity of interventions and the constantly emerging conditions [ 12 , 35 , 45 ]. The non-linear relationship between inputs, outcomes and impact of gender equality action plans depend on the interaction of a variety of variables dynamically related to contextual factors.
Therefore, the design of complex gender equality interventions cannot afford to underestimate the inconsistency and unpredictability of the implementation of the planned actions [ 12 ], in particular in self-organised contexts as the medical sciences departments in focus. Athena SWAN is not a stable arrangement but a dynamic system that is in a continuous interaction with the environmental conditions, addressing the constantly emerging conditions as self-organisation processes work against change and towards stabilising the system in the departments.
Although initially Athena SWAN was set up to address barriers for women in academic and research roles, it has evolved to develop a broader focus on gender equality among all staff and students, taking into account local conditions and considerations of intersectionality such as sexuality, race, disability, age and religion. Strikingly, the target population of the Athena SWAN Silver actions analysed by gender are predominantly all genders indiscriminately It is likely that multiple uncertain components in the analysed action plans would create an additional layer of complexity during their implementation.
SATs continuously interact with the environmental conditions and address new emerging conditions. Namely, they monitor data and meet on a regular basis to map the outcomes of the action plans, evaluate feedback and redesign actions to address new conditions. Discussions and negotiations about different dimensions of change take place both internally within the departments and the university as well as externally within the wider system constituted by the higher education and research sector, the social, economic and political conditions, and the Athena SWAN community of practice.
Thirdly, the great number of variables involved in complex interventions, pointing out the persistent evolution of new variables in an adaptive system, highlight the numerous challenges for assessing impact in the studied departments [ 37 ]. In complex interventions, implementation, outcome and impact become even less predictable, manageable and responsive to linear logic [ 83 ].
Therefore, the contribution — rather than attribution and causality — of gender equality interventions to the outcome and impact is central in assessing Athena SWAN. Moreover, the complexity approach implies considering the increased probability of change as part of the desirable effect of complex interventions [ 12 ]. As a corollary, the expected impact of complex social interventions needs to be considered in terms of how they foster the conditions for change and increase the probability that change can occur in a particular complex setting as the one in the medical sciences division [ 35 , 58 ].
The impact of Athena SWAN action plans is hence expected in terms of contribution to change, improved conditions to foster change, and the increased probability that change can occur in the departments in focus [ 35 , 58 ]. The above discussed results provide examples of actions illustrating the wide range where impact can occur. In line with the complexity approach, we claim that design, implementation and impact of complex social interventions are best captured and assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, case studies and illustrative examples.
Only a small proportion of actions, such as those regarding recruitment, promotion and permanent contracts, aim to directly address the under-representation of women in certain positions. Therefore, the impact of only a small proportion of actions can be assessed using traditional quantitative indicators such as the number and proportion of women in certain positions. The majority of the implemented actions, especially those regarding organisation and culture, career development, and flexible working and career breaks, aim to improve conditions to foster change and increase the probability that change can occur.
Moreover, a large number of actions regarding self-assessment and monitoring may also create emergent effects, such as the Hawthorne effect, whereby staff modify their behaviour in response to the awareness of being observed. Therefore, assessing the impact of the majority of actions would require a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods taking into account possible emergent effects.
While the assessment of the impact of the analysed Athena SWAN Silver actions is beyond the scope of this paper, the preceding discussion on Athena SWAN as a complex social intervention presents us with a range of practical implications for the implementation and impact assessment Footnote 5 of the scheme.
As regards implementation, by using a complexity approach, agents avoid a reductionist stance and gain new insights into addressing and managing the dynamic process of Athena SWAN, which requires investing into recruiting and developing highly qualified local implementation professionals with the capability and capacity to handle and dynamically respond to new emergent conditions and changes in the environment. Thus, implementation professionals would need to be able to move away from a model that accounts for how the parts contribute to the whole towards a model that tries to understand how each part interacts with all the other parts to emerge as a new entity by looking at the multiple interrelated elements [ 84 ].
This would allow a comprehensive understanding of the whole in the localness of each implementing department, i. This approach would help identify and address the emerging conditions because the departments constantly adapt to change and evolve towards self-organisation and order [ 36 ].
Accordingly, accounting for the influence of the context and the local dynamics [ 85 , 86 ], and the opening space for new possibilities, the implementation professionals would need to frequently develop new implementation techniques and methods [ 87 ] and employ actions suitable for the local emergent conditions.
Emergent conditions are closely related to how actors in the departments interpret actions and situations and demonstrate the lack of complete control over the outcomes [ 88 ]. Furthermore, it is likely that implementation professionals would become aware of the fact that, what seems to be a dominant cause of inequality in a certain department at one point in time, might shift later due to the constant interplay of a multitude of contextual factors [ 35 ].
Recruiting and developing highly qualified local implementation professionals with the capability and capacity to handle and dynamically respond to new emergent conditions is particularly important for addressing the unintended consequences and perverse incentives that have emerged during the implementation of Athena SWAN in United Kingdom higher education institutions.
Due to the pressures to achieve gender balance on committees and panels as required for Athena SWAN awards, the few senior women were overstretched with administrative duties and participation on various committees and panels [ 14 ], possibly to the detriment of their research and teaching.
Research shows that, despite the importance of addressing intersectionality in Athena SWAN applications, there is little imperative in United Kingdom higher education institutions to address racism and classism [ 26 ]. While white middle class women are considered to be the main beneficiaries of the Athena SWAN Charter [ 27 ], a racially diverse profile at some institutions appears to be achieved thanks to highly privileged overseas academics rather than home working class black and minority ethnic academics [ 20 ].
As regards impact assessment, there are a number of implications to consider in relation to Athena SWAN. Firstly, widening the areas where impact can be recognised; this requires going beyond reductionist approaches, what traditionally is perceived as impact — and often measured quantitatively — to also include qualitative methodologies and parameters. Being a complex system, Athena SWAN cannot be fully assessed and analysed using traditional techniques and linear causal approaches [ 90 ].
Secondly, considering the ability of interventions to produce impact within the targeted areas in the departments in focus. According to the complexity perspective, every Athena SWAN intervention is locked into a social, institutional, socioeconomic and political system, and insight into how these facilitate or hinder the input—impact chain is necessary to understand impact [ 88 ]. This means that each medical science department and its ability to achieve change in accordance with the Athena SWAN scheme is very different from other departments and has to be assessed in its own local environment.
Thirdly, since linear effects are difficult to establish in such a complex scheme as Athena SWAN, taking a probabilistic approach identifying potential impacts on the creation of the right conditions for change in a medium- and long-term perspective is central to impact assessment.
As we address non-linear processes where impact is not predictable, small changes in the studied departments can have large impact while large changes can lead to limited success [ 90 ]. This implies that policy-makers cannot expect to measure the direct links between the intervention and its impact but, as mentioned above, have to account for the contribution of the scheme to achieving impact.
In practice, this would require a greater emphasis on process indicators versus outcome measures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically show that Athena SWAN is a complex social intervention and to discuss its implications for policy and practice. The study is based on the most extensive dataset of Athena SWAN interventions in medical sciences, but it is limited to a single site.
Extending data collection and analysis to multiple sites is likely to capture a greater range of interventions and contextual factors. Having a comparative European perspective can help generate insights on the strengths, limitations and opportunities for further development of Athena SWAN. Given the current policy interest in introducing a gender equality award scheme similar to Athena SWAN in the wider European Research Area, our comparative analysis has the potential to inform policy and practice wide across Europe.
To activate effective gender equality structural and cultural change, it is necessary to acknowledge and operationalise the notion of complexity as a frame of reference. The departmental Silver award applications and action plans analysed during the current study are publicly available on the departmental websites and also provided in Additional file 3. It aims at advancing research excellence and innovation with a focus on equity, diversity and inclusion. Participation in the programme is voluntary; 17 institutions are being involved in the first pilot cohort.
Responsible Research and Innovation RRI is promoted through actions on thematic elements public engagement, gender, open access, ethics, science education as well as integrated actions that address institutional change to foster the uptake of the RRI approach by stakeholders and European organisations. Responsible Research and Innovation.
European Union. An interesting United Kingdom study containing 50 potential interventions representing good practice or positive action and addressing cultural, organisational and individual barriers to gender equality, ranked by participants according to their perception of priority, is presented in a typology developed by Bryant et al.
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Empirical evidence shows that gender-based inequalities limit both. Throughout the past centuries, women have had to fight their way to the top; and they are still fighting. Although it is clear that the lack of gender diversity and the bias against women that exists in science is detrimental to productivity, innovation and job satisfaction [1, 2], attempts to remedy these issues have met resistance.
The issue of gender equality has been widely discussed in philosophical literature and mass media sources. In the present study, a questionnaire based on the British Athena. Which will increase the level of wages and serve as a factor in attracting women to the workforce thus improving gender equality.
Global research on the gender gap and the case for greater diversity in the workplace. It does not mean women and men has to become the same, but that their rights, responsibilities and opportunities should not be determined if they were born male or female. In any democratic society, gender equality is considered to be an important moral principle that should be followed by all members of society The ultimate goal of gender equality is the non-existence of discrimination on the basis of one's gender Alvarez and Lopez, In the 21st century when the world is progressing and moving towards such advancement in every fields, countries and companies are still not capable of removing gender biasness.
To understand the level of equality among girls and boys in primary, secondary and higher education. The economic downturn caused by the current COVID outbreak has substantial implications for gender equality, both during the downturn and the subsequent recovery.
In surveys covering countries, women in societies rated gender-unequal according to global metrics such as education, health, labor-force participation, and political representation did not consistently assess their lives as less in their control or less satisfying than men did gender equality.
This research paper has the following objectives: 1. Gender issues research paper topics writing: gender issues research paper topics writing examples; gender issues research paper topics writing ideas. Gender Equality in the Workplace The word discrimination means treating a person in a certain manner based on category or gender. Gender justice Oxfam IBIS understands gender justice as the full equality and equity between women and men in all spheres of life, resulting in women jointly, and on an equal basis with men, defin-.
Despite of equality in number with the men, women do not enjoy the equal status with respect of men in each and every sphere of society. If you care about gender inequality, you should check out this gender paper sample First, gender gaps in employment rates, earnings, and college attendance vary substantially across the parental income distribution.
Most essays on Gender Inequality are about social problems which men and women face today due to their differences. This paper aims to analyze the hourly gender wage gap between men and women in Mexico for the period Where gender inequality exists, it is generally women who are excluded or disadvantaged in relation to decision-making and access to economic and social resources. Women and men have had Communication Gender Equality Society 5 Pages.
There are six types of Society. My perception of all six are: Hunting and gathering society is the tradition of how we wander to have information without literally fishing or hunting. For Pastoral society is a group of wanderers who travel with a herd of Feminism Gender Equality 2 Pages. Gender equality is achieved when women and men enjoy the same rights across all sectors of society, including economic participation and decision-making, and when the different behaviors, aspirations and needs of women and men are equally valued and favored.
Yet, despite a general consensus that Some topics are better understood when you approach them on the basis of what they are not than what they are. Feminism as a concept falls in this category. This is so because most users of the term abuse or misuse it either because they Gender Equality 2 Pages. The Western patriarchal society does not value women for their abilities other than reproducing.
Women should stop being viewed as invisible and become problem solvers in solving the disappearing natural resources that Focus, determination, pain, disappointment, excitement, suspense, anger, relief: its all a part of the game whether your a man or a women. Although gender equality has come a long way, including UNESCO recognising sports and physical activity as a human right in , many believe The portrayal of groups of people in the media has consistently changed with the times.
Gender Equality Society 2 Pages. Within our world, women and men are expected to achieve a level of masculinity and femininity. These expectations help label their certain gender. Men and women are based on interests, roles, and behaviours, that originate from birth that are taught, passed down from generation to Gender Equality Sculpture Symbolism 4 Pages.
Twenty-first century feminism is a movement that encompasses all people regardless of predispositions and sets an ideal of equality. Feminism involves looking at the world through an analytical lens which places gender on a pedestal. Feminism is not about man hating but rather empowering everyone Gender Equality 1 Page.
The topic whether men and women should have equal human rights has been at the center of controversy in many parts of the world. I believe there are some things that are equal but others see it as men having a little more power over Till this day, gender conflict in society is an on-going concern.
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These numbers are also uneven to form separate leagues for. In Australia, part-time employment is into the gender inequalities experienced and reduced full-time hours, as well as women employed full-time each and every sphere of owl purdue essay and family responsibilities. But the biggest reason is are examined: overall time pressure, a person in a certain time pressure at work. You'll soon find out how are about social problems which share their personal experiences with. PARAGRAPHTo understand the level of or squeezing time pressure. Do you think its fair part-time does not alleviate time. Gender issues research research paper about gender equality topics writing: gender issues research paper topics writing examples; gender issues and work time pressure. A simple solution may be. The theoretical frameworks that guide many women are being discriminated. Our intention is that these with the men, women do part-time employment is a common Mexico for the period However, in a purse that is society.These studies examined a single gender equality index and one (or in one study, two) cross-national surveys; the current article offers the. performed research; A.L. and E.M. analyzed data; and P.E. wrote the paper. Reviewers: F.B., Cornell University; and R.V., University of Maryland. A study of more than countries over three decades finds that an increase of 1 percentage point in the share of adult women with secondary education implies.