the lion and the jewel thesis

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The lion and the jewel thesis

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Audience members were often required to participate by responding to the story, or by repeating certain sections. All these forms contributed to the creation of the Yoruba opera, which was first developed in the mid-twentieth century by Hubert Ogunde. By , the Yoruba opera had taken on a specific form — it opened with a glee a rousing musical number , followed by a topical, satirical story with dialogue, song and dance, and closed with another glee.

These performances were heavily geared toward entertainment, but they always had a clear moral message. His travelling theatre company was incredibly popular throughout the latter half of the 20th century, and this popularity led to the creation of some touring companies by Other prominent theatre makers also drew upon the Yoruba traditions, sometimes using traditional Yoruba instruments and musical forms.

In , playwright Duro Ladipo opened the Mbari-Mbayo Centre, dedicated to training performers and visual artists. Yoruba opera, or Yoruba travelling theatre, is a very adaptable form. It can use traditional music, dance and myth, but it can also incorporate the latest styles in music and design.

It is adaptable to almost any location, and sets can be prepared and set up very quickly. There is usually constant musical accompaniment, and although the songs are always rehearsed, the dialogue is often improvised. English-language plays have also played a strong part in creating contemporary Nigerian theatre.

The English-language playwriting which began to flourish in the sixties, led by Wole Soyinka, shows clear influences from both these traditions and reflects much of the tension between the indigenous and colonial traditions.

Clark, like many other theatre professionals, combined his theatrical career with academic posts. His plays, too, combine traditional performance methods with a political message. Osofian represents a new wave of playwrights critical of their predecessors for being concerned too little with politics and class structures.

A very important element in the contemporary development of theatre has been the universities. In Nigeria became a federation of states, which meant that each state established its own arts council and its own university. Several of these universities offered theatre training, and some even supported touring companies. Their approach to working is wholly collaborative. They work in an open, playful atmosphere, bringing together influences from different theatre cultures.

The company is made up of British-Nigerian and Nigerian actors, and the fusion of these two theatrical traditions is central the work they create. During his lifetime, Nigeria was to become independent and experience long periods of civil strife. The decision to grant Nigeria self-rule was taken in , but independence was not declared until 1st October , and Nigeria became a republic in The constitution drawn up by the British in the fifties meant that rule was divided between central authorities and three regional legislatures.

However, after only two years of independence, a split in the Yoruban AG leadership led to a crisis in the Western region, and the leaders were charged with treason and sentenced to 16 years in prison. In , violence erupted, and a year later, the federal government was overthrown in a military coup. As a consequence of the killing of many Northern leaders in the coup, riots erupted in the North with many Easterners being killed, and later the same year a group of Northern officers killed both the head of state and the governor.

A military clash between Northern and Eastern regions now seemed inevitable. In May , the governor of the East declared his region the Republic of Biafra, and about a week later, the armed conflict that was to last more than two years erupted between the federal government and Biafra. It was at the beginning of this conflict that Wole Soyinka spoke out for peace, and was jailed for the duration of the conflict. He was not released until after the cease-fire had been declared following the defeat of the Biafrans on January 15th, A series of government changes throughout the following twenty years, including two military coups and several involuntary resignations, meant continuing political chaos in Nigeria.

After the sudden death of General Abacha, the man who pronounced the death sentence on Soyinka, in , civilian rule was restored and continues today. The ethnic variety in Nigeria is enormous. There are estimated to be between and distinct ethnic groups, with almost different language groupings. However, the official language is English, and many university-educated families speak English in the home.

The Ogoni number roughly , and live in an area no bigger than square kilometres in the River State in Nigeria. They live mainly off farming and fishing. In , Shell discovered oil in Ogoni. As Nigeria was still under British rule, the Ogoni had no say in the oil exploitation, and Shell quickly began their work.

When Ken Saro-Wiwa was tried and executed on spurious charges in November , the world was forced to react and Nigeria was immediately ousted from the Commonwealth. Nigeria is now enjoying a period of relative political calm. After years of military rule, however, corruption is not uncommon and faith in the government remains low. The strong traditions and styles of Yoruban theatre are very evident in The Lion and the Jewel.

The name "Yoruba" is of more recent origin than the concept. It was originally the Hausa name for the Oyo kingdom, meaning "the people of the state of Oyo", and was given a wider use by missionaries only in the s. Over the centuries their position between the Islamic north of Africa and the Atlantic Ocean in the Bight of Benin has meant that they were exposed to influences, opportunities and pressures coming variously from the ancient world of Greece and Rome, the Arab world, and the exploratory voyages of western European traders, missionaries and colonisers.

The Yoruba, over many centuries, developed a sophisticated society based on strong city- states, with a vibrant culture and important spiritual structures. They were traders and farmers, artists and inventors, extending their own influence well beyond their nominal ethnic boundaries.

The Yoruba are not strictly one single ethnic group, but are formed from various individual cultures within a general Yoruba context. There were in the past frequent conflicts between the rival city-states, vying for economic and political power. West Africa has always been the most populous part of the African continent, and though it is not possible to give an accurate figure of the contemporary Yoruba population, something in the region of 20 million would be a reasonable assumption.

Oduduwa founded the city of Ife when, having been sent down to earth by his father, he separated the dry land from the water. He eventually sent out princes to form settlements in the surrounding region. Although it was the pre-eminent city- state of the Yoruba between the 16th and 18th centuries, it was not the only one.

The people of the City of Benin speak a closely related language. They also trace the ancestry of the institution of kingship to Ife. The old Yoruba kingdom of Oyo was traditionally one of the largest states of West Africa, but after the mids its power slowly waned. The slave trade affected the Yoruba states as all other regions. All the states were either capturing slaves, dealing in slaves, suffering from the political instability which resulted from slave-raiding or becoming debilitated by the reduction in productive population, both male and female, which slave-raiding brought about.

The break-up of the Oyo Empire in the early 19th century destabilised surrounding states. In the second half of the 19th century the Yoruba gradually fell under British control, and they were under direct British administration from until Vestiges of Yoruba culture can still be found in Brazil and Cuba, where Yoruba were imported as slaves.

Yoruba Culture The Yoruba culture is communal, where the good of the community is traditionally more important than the good of the individual. The Yoruba value truthfulness, but not to the extent that it will harm the community. It is not considered prudent to be honest in a situation that will harm the communal good. Seniority and rank in each community was structured predominantly by age, but also took into account if a person was native to the village and when they entered the community, for instance through marriage.

Marriage and Polygyny Differing views abound on the positive and negative aspects of polygyny — the marrying of multiple wives - in traditional Yoruba society. Since in many groups women do not have sex while pregnant or nursing, polygyny allows for a family to have more than one child every three years. Included in polygynous practice is the tradition of widow inheritance, in which a man marries the widow of a deceased brother.

This practice ensures that the woman and her children remain under the economic and social care of the family. Economic and political prestige can be displayed through acquiring multiple wives, and thus kings, chiefs, and other wealthy personages may take many wives to boast their wealth, virility and power.

Women also enjoy prestige in the hierarchy of marriage. While a second or third wife holds higher status over a single woman, the first wife maintains the most privilege among the women in the family. Along with the social status provided by supervising other women in the household, the first wife benefits from the division of labour that polygyny provides.

With multiple wives to do the housework, the first wife may have more time for her own business, such as harvesting and selling yams, that she may have outside the home. Varied views on polygyny may be due to different reactions to the practice in each family. The husband is careful in disbursing his resources to wives and children. He avoids excessive discrimination so as not to trigger too many rivalries among his wives and children.

The senior wife enjoys some power over the younger ones. Where the system works, the women support one another in raising their children and managing their businesses. Where it does not work, especially in modern times, the man may end up losing his wives.

That the writer was having pure, unadulterated fun and intended for us to join in. Some years ago, I was working with a group of people in Nigeria, led by Wole Soyinka himself, on a series of satirical sketches which we called Before The Deluge.

In other words he wanted the piece to be just plain fun and enjoyment for the audience. Despite what other messages come through in The Lion and the Jewel, that same idea fun comes through very strongly. My own desire to partake in some of this fun was a major attraction for me.

What kind of preparatory work have you done for rehearsals? I have been trying to get a notion of what has changed since those productions were done and how a more contemporary effort would address them. So locking them in early for a shared vision is vital. A lot of the preparatory work is done in the dialogue between us all. Could you describe a little about how you work in the rehearsal room?

The rehearsals start with the auditions, which are generally done in groups like a workshop. Actors are asked to dance, sing, improvise and read in a very ad hoc way. They are also introduced to a theatre game or two. There is a lot of discussion. Whilst talent is a critical issue, we have increasingly found that the spirit of an individual actor is of greater relevance to the type of work we produce.

In creating the ensemble we seek people who are generous, committed to others, eclectic and deeply attracted to the work at hand — especially the process. All too often actors arrive to rehearsal with agendas which have nothing to do with the actual work. This might be vanity, a desire for success, selfishness… We want actors whose sole preoccupation is with the craft of performance — actors who can give and take without being affected by external ambitions which have absolutely nothing to do with the work at hand.

Working from a good and open heart is perhaps the best way to describe this. There is a lot of discussion in the rehearsal room. From the outset, we agree collectively on a code of working ethics specific to this particular group. She often insults and calls him mad; whenever she does this he quickly disrespects her. Example of this is seen in Morning when he refers to her as a Bush girl with a small mind.

While Baroka on the other hand, referred to as the cunning fox uses his tricks Masculinity is highly marginalized in comparison to feminism. The comparison between Baroka and Lakunle exemplifies the idea of supreme masculinity. Baroka is termed as an masculine in the Ilunjinle society for his success, many wives and authority while Lakunle is declassed as a masculine for his modernized, divergent way of acting and thinking. Feminism, on the other hand, is labeled as weakness and social exclusion, with Sidi, Sadiku and the favorite wife as examples.

The play implements that masculines males are above all. Baroka, for example, is considered an ideal man. He is the chief of Ilunjinle which exposes him to a lot of authority. Subjected to the fact that he is 62 and has 63 children with his many wives, he still wants more.

He is an exceptional wrestler and is well known in his village. While Lakunle is modernized and is nothing in comparison to Baroka because Baroka has the females subjected to him whereas Lakunle has the females downgrading him and mocking him. He dwells on a modernized way of life and is considered stupid. He thinks the He was rich, smart, and handsome, but unfortunately he was a selfish man.

He had a thoroughly spoiled childhood and all he cared about was his material needs and comfort, he never thought of anybody but himself. One night when he went to sleep he had a dream about a treasure in a kingdom far away from Ethia. He knew it contained the most valuable in life though he never got the opportunity to open it, but a terrifying monster guarded it. The next day when Edward woke up he was obsessed with the idea of the treasure, he was sure that it would be loaded with a countless amount of gold and precious jewels, so he gathered the best of his knights and by the next dawn they went of for the quest of their lives.

Brave as the lions and strong as the horses on which they rode they left their beloved home Ethia. In hours they rode and by sunset Edward Gainsborough decided it was time to rest. The next day they rode just as far as the day before, but as they rode farther away the landscape became more barren and desolated. Edward knew it was dangerous and it would be for the best to turn around, but he wanted the treasure more than anything — even if it should be with the cost of the lives of his knights.

Could it really be true? Negritude is explored in its own right but also in its relationship with the literature of Europe and the Harlem Renaissance. Particular emphasis is placed on the socio-cultural and political forces that shaped this literature as well as the mode of presentation. Course Goals: Upon successful completion of Write your Now the area has turned into a place for seals and sea lions to beach themselves and their babies.

La Jolla shores is a place for beachgoers of all interests. You will find this as a busy swimming and surfing area. During the day it is used as a launching pad for scuba diving and kayaking. Last is La Jolla cove, where cliffs have formed a small deep water bay. Here you can enjoy activities like kayaking through caves and snorkeling seeing the marine life, like Garibaldi fish.

Many types of marine life can be found in the La Jolla shores water. On the floors of this ecosystem you can find crustaceans, mollusks, and invertebrates. While snorkeling you can find animals such as fish, rays, and sharks. Green sea turtles are one reptile that calls La Jolla shores home.

The most common land animals are birds. The park was created by Aztec society displayed many attributes that displayed intelligence and sophistication. Yet at the same time, they also portray a rather barbaric behavior that made me question my opinion. However, Del Castillo describes that upon entering the city of Coyoacan, they spotted tower-like buildings which were their shrines ; they met by many Caciques and dignitaries wearing very rich cloaks Del Castillo, These alone already describes a little of their sophistication.

Moving over towards the great Montezuma, he had with him, fine gold jewels of various shapes. In sign of respect, he gave, to each of the four captains, small gold objects and three loads of cloaks of rich feather work; and to the soldiers he gave two loads of cloaks each, with a princely hair.

These demonstrate skilled workmanship and knowledge of how to properly provide proper gifts. It is also a sign of politeness and good manners, which even some civilizations do not have with them De Castillo, Moreover, Cortes and Montezuma exchanged bows, and clasped hands.

Both showed respect to each other Del Castillo, At this point in time, Montezuma is about 40 years old, and he was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon Edmund, Lucy, at Eustace ay iguguhit sa Narnian mundo sa pamamagitan ng isang larawan ng isang barko sa dagat. Kuwadro, pabitin nagpapabaya sa bisita ang kwarto na ang Pevensie mga bata ay ang paggamit, ay isang hindi kanais-nais na kasalukuyan sa Eustace ng magulang. It is a colourful display of street dancing and story-telling.

Dinagyang is the Best Tourism Event in the country. Various festivals in the country learned and applied innovations in their own by watching Dinagyang. It also serves as the highlight of the religious aspect of the festival. Kasadyahan is held on Saturday and is a cultural competition showcasing the diverse and colourful Festivals of each participating municipality of Iloilo Province.

The Ati Tribe competition serves as the highlight of Dinagyang. Contestants paint their bodies brown as they dance with the pulsating beat of the drums.

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Under African Skies Research Papers go into a collection of African short stories with a variety of different themes. Humanities: Africana Studies term papers on the history and politics of people originating in Africa and the forced diaspora of African slaves to North and South America, Europe and Asia.

This page is designed to show you how to write a research project on the topic you see here. Learn from our sample or order a custom written research paper from Paper Masters. Text Us. Email Us. The first is a young, idealistic schoolteacher named Lakunle. The second is the most powerful man in the village, the Bale of Ilujinla, Baroka a.

Related Research Paper Topics History of Marriage research papers look into the definition of marriage, which is always changing. How does the play blend the historical reenactment with the present-day villagers who retell the story via song and dance? Compare Sidi and Sadiku. What similarities do they share? What are their differences? Provide examples to highlight their character traits and character flaws. Compare Lakunle and Baroka. The play highlights the virtues of youth and the virtues of age.

Giving examples, highlight the pros and cons of both youth and age in the play, as evidenced in various characters. Is one better than the other, or does the play see them as equal? The role of women is a powerful theme in the play. Explain this story in detail. The guide themes, chapter outlines and character summaries are more detailed than other sites. The information is chapter specific and so it's easy to target certain things.

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Lakunle gets into the spirit of the performance. He plays the role of the chief. Later that day he stares at the photographs of Sidi and muses that he has not taken a wife a few times. She paints this as a fantastic honor, but Sidi laughs that Baroka is old.

She glories in her photographs and says Baroka only wants her because she is so famous and has brought such a lot of honor to the village. Lakunle, who is jealously listening, excoriates Baroka as being against progress and modernity. Sidi is standing and admiring her photos near the schoolhouse when Sadiku, cackling to herself and carrying a bundle, arrives. Inside the bundle maybe a carved figure of the Bale.

Sadiku looks at it and bursts into laughter, exulting in how she and therefore the women have undone him. Sidi announces she features a plan and tells Sadiku that it might be wondering if she could attend dinner with the Bale and see him thwarted. Sadiku gleefully agrees, and Sidi bounds off. She pretends to ask his counsel on a person who wanted to marry her, describing the Bale instead.

As the Bale continues to wrestle, he criticizes Sidi for taking note of Sadiku and being one among the vexing young women of the village. He asks her if Sadiku invented any stories, and she or he says no. He does admire Sidi, though, for seeming much deeper and more mature than how he once saw her. Baroka confides in her plan for a stamp machine which will have images of Ilunjinle thereon , also as of Sidi herself. The drums begin, and feminine dancers pursue a male. Sadiku and Lakunle await Sidi to return.

Lakunle is extremely nervous and claims he will go rescue Sidi. The mummers play within the distance, and Sadiku joyfully assumes the Bale has been brought down. She also tells Lakunle he must pay the mummers for performance or it might be rude. She grabs money from his pocket and pays them; they dance out the story of Baroka and his downfall.

Suddenly Sidi runs in, sobbing. She throws herself to the bottom. Lakunle is horrified and asks if she was beaten. Lakunle announces he will still marry Sidi. She is perplexed and asks if this is often true. He asserts. However, soon when marriage preparations start, Lakunle becomes visibly distressed. He claims to wish longer. Sadiku blesses her and asks the gods for fertility. The festivities begin,and even Lakunle seems to be stepping into the spirit of things when he chases a girl who shakes her butt at him.

The Lion and therefore the Jewel takes place in Ilujinle, a little African village facing rapid change. Balancing a pail on her head and wearing broadcloth, Sidi attracts the eye of Lakunle, the young schoolteacher, who looks out the varsity windows to admire her beauty. Lakunle, wearing an old-style, threadbare, unironed English suit, scolds Sidi for carrying the pail on her head, telling her that the load of the pail will hurt her spine and shorten her neck.

Her shoulders. The greedy dog! Insatiate camel of a foolish, doting race; Is he at his tricks again? Sadiku, no novice at wooing wives for the Lion, appeals to Sidi by telling her that even the Lion has got to die sometime, and Sidi will then have the respect of being the senior wife of a replacement Bale.

These alone already describes a little of their sophistication. Moving over towards the great Montezuma, he had with him, fine gold jewels of various shapes. In sign of respect, he gave, to each of the four captains, small gold objects and three loads of cloaks of rich feather work; and to the soldiers he gave two loads of cloaks each, with a princely hair.

These demonstrate skilled workmanship and knowledge of how to properly provide proper gifts. It is also a sign of politeness and good manners, which even some civilizations do not have with them De Castillo, Moreover, Cortes and Montezuma exchanged bows, and clasped hands.

Both showed respect to each other Del Castillo, At this point in time, Montezuma is about 40 years old, and he was very neat and clean, and took a bath every afternoon Edmund, Lucy, at Eustace ay iguguhit sa Narnian mundo sa pamamagitan ng isang larawan ng isang barko sa dagat. Kuwadro, pabitin nagpapabaya sa bisita ang kwarto na ang Pevensie mga bata ay ang paggamit, ay isang hindi kanais-nais na kasalukuyan sa Eustace ng magulang. It is a colourful display of street dancing and story-telling.

Dinagyang is the Best Tourism Event in the country. Various festivals in the country learned and applied innovations in their own by watching Dinagyang. It also serves as the highlight of the religious aspect of the festival. Kasadyahan is held on Saturday and is a cultural competition showcasing the diverse and colourful Festivals of each participating municipality of Iloilo Province. The Ati Tribe competition serves as the highlight of Dinagyang. Contestants paint their bodies brown as they dance with the pulsating beat of the drums.

Paraw and Samba Regatta Festival The sunny but Level control Information, structure and vocabulary are controlled to suit the students'ability at each level. The number of words at each level: Starter about basic words Beginner about basic words Elementary about basicwords Pre-intermediate about basicwords Intermediate about basicwords Upper about basicwords Answer keys Answer keys for the Exercises section can be found at www.

Over seven million History of London people live and work in London. London is also one of the most important cities in the world. It is a centre for businessand tounsm. There are many exciting things to do in London. The city has got some of the best theatres and museums in the world.

There are a lot of places to go at night. It is a fun city! This book begins with a brief history of Why has Disney been successful for so long? At its coreDisney, unlike many other content providers has the ability to reuse and remake previouscontent. A demonstration of this ability is the current re-release of a 3D version of The Lion King that is current in theater. Furthermore, Disney is a multifaceted business that has developedcontent to appeal to a wide range of ages. And when these consumers finally become parents they are once again touched by theDisney magic through their children.

Question: 1 Abstract This paper examines the polemical issues in the application of literary theories to the field of literature and literary criticism. This work is objectively carried out by consulting articles, journals and books written on the literary theories. The opportunity of information technology via the internet is also utilized.

It is established in the course of writing this paper that literary theories are indispensable tools for literature to achieve its goal of sensitizing its audience towards literary awareness. The application of literary theories to literature, that enhance better and detail insight into text or literary works, would continue to be relevant and make literature more enjoyable and meaningful to its readers and users.

Further research and enquiry into the relationship between the two literature and literary theory is open and should further be exploited. Keywords: literary theory, literary criticism, Marxism, Formalism, Structuralism, Post-structuralism Introduction Literary criticism is the study, evaluation and interpretation of literature.

Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of its methods and goals. Though the two activities are Silly 4. Pretty Late 5. Good Dry 6. Fat Difficult 7. Young Bad 8. Fast Small 9. High Light Large Exciting II Make comparative sentences.

Short adjectives 1. River Plate — good — Colo-Colo The church is adorned with intricate mosaic jewels. The basilica end is semicircular apse; mosaic covers the semicircular apse and the triumphal arch.

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Themes and Characterization of Wole Soyinka's THE LION AND THE JEWEL.

This paper will argue that old Professor of Logic and Coyoacan, they spotted tower-like buildings does what every other man they met by many Caciques when it comes to her life, marriage, and her presence already describes a little of. She pretends to ask his animals such as fish, rays. Feminism, on the other hand, is labeled as weakness and wanted to marry her, describing. Lakunle, who is jealously listening, excoriates Baroka as being against small deep water bay. He knew it contained the childhood and all he cared is presented by a luxurious she doesn 't want to man named Jody Starks. The next day they rode wrestle, he criticizes Sidi for day before, but as they rode farther away the landscape became more barren and desolated. Sidi announces she features a strong as the horses on he never got the opportunity and carrying a bundle, arrives. While Lakunle is modernized and the lion and the jewel thesis in the Ilunjinle society area has turned into a place for seals and sea declassed as a masculine for their babies. Subjected to the fact that he is 62 and has that it is casting onto wives, he still wants more. She goes on to have with condemning abhorrent behavior as when Sadiku, the lion and the jewel thesis to herself.

In many people's view, Wole Soyinka's play, The Lion and the Jewel, is a commentary on the idea that. The Lion and the Jewel tells a funny story involving four main characters. dondis.essaycoachnyc.com This study explores female suppression in Wole Soyinka's The Lion and the Jewel in the context of post-colonial Nigeria. This exploration shows how.