phd dissertations knowledge management

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Phd dissertations knowledge management

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Offers more than 2. Full-text available. Selected Dissertations Learn how to find dissertations in the Library. A Case Study: Leadership Style and Practice Leveraging Knowledge Management in Multigenerational Professional Learning Communities The specific problem addressed was most public school principals have not considered or planned for capturing and transferring organizational knowledge within multigenerational workplaces, while instituting PLCs, posing leadership challenges, in transferring organizational knowledge.

Evaluating Knowledge Transfer, Adult Learning, and the Impact on Navy Laboratory Knowledge Management Program Development The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of the government, military and civilian, and contractor workforces concerning adult continuing education, knowledge transfer management, and cultural diversity.

Author: Anthony R. Damiano, Northcentral University. Financial Service Leaders' Incorporation of Knowledge Management Systems in Overall Organizational Strategy This multiple case study was an exploration of the strategies financial service industry leaders use to incorporate a KMS in organizational strategy. Author: Kristin Valley, Walden University. Author: Nicholas S.

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Equipped with proper tools, statistical software, and sources of reference, we write dissertations and theses that are one-of-a-kind, innovative, accurate, and up-to-date. In addition to regular libraries, our professional researchers have access to online, member-only research libraries that contain millions of books, journals, periodicals, magazines, and vast information on every conceivable "Knowledge Management" subject. Providing the data are accurate, there is little flexibility for new data to be incorporated immediately, thus leaving a lag time between new information is integrated into the old one.

Knowledge management systems should adjust to new conditions. And also an important issue with information nowadays is its huge quantity, which requires careful picking up. Today the business environment is changing rapidly. Skyrme had summarized the drivers that lead to the development of knowledge management. Marler states that the rate of change in technologies is so quick, that it does not allow enough time to develop subject matter experts, training courses, and human resource interventions.

Nevertheless, not only technologies are changing rapidly, as well as products and product-lines etc. Now, it is rapidly becoming an integral business function for many organisations as they realise that competitiveness hinges on effective management of intellectual properties.

In a relatively quiet and rapid way, the concept had penetrated into many different functions and processes of business. This is perhaps the best possible set of outcomes from knowledge management. Rather than becoming a stand-alone business fad, the management of knowledge is best accomplished by becoming embedded in other aspects of business.

Ironically, the best future for knowledge management would be for it to become so pervasive and common that it seems invisible. Jarzombek commentates that there is no real management of knowledge as it is internal to individuals; yet it is possible to set the right environment in order to promote the sharing of information that derives from this tacit knowledge. Stecking commentates that there is at least some grade to which knowledge may be managed.

So the main issued here is to manage the knowledge and that is what the knowledge management examines. Hofstede et al. It is actually the method to assist any organisation towards the understanding based on won experiences; it is the means of storing and referring to past knowledge towards the solving of problems, of learning in a dynamic manner, of achieving effective strategic planning and of making sound decisions, of providing flexibility, of constantly upgrading the intellectual assets and overall organisational intelligence.

Bryman, According to Malhotra , knowledge management may shield the organisation against discontinuous and rapid environmental changes by assisting its adaptation, survival and overall competence since it promotes the processes that are effectively utilising information as well as the innovative capacity of human beings. A recent World Bank report agrees that there is no common definition for what is Knowledge Management; most definitions are linked to the generation, capture, or dissemination of know-how World Bank, Carter and Scarbrough are concluding that the main definitions of the knowledge management are about intellectual capital, knowledge assets and workplace and organisational learning.

From some further reading of others authors such as Nonaka , Davenport and Prusak and Marler there can be assumed that knowledge management are some practices best practices and procedures that can create knowledge within the environment of an organisation and transform it to a source of competitive advantage. The following figure illustrates the Knowledge Cycle. Figure 1. This is a circle which starts from the creation of knowledge. Then it goes from the storage and the distribution of the knowledge within the firm, so to be used from the individuals who will use it to acquire and learn new knowledge.

At this point, it is useful to refer on the fact that this circle does not have an end. When the individual will acquire and use the new knowledge, then he will start again a new knowledge, since knowledge is not static but it needs to be renewed very often. Hamvas claims that before starting to talk about the genuine nature of an economic crisis, we ought to ask if we are able to talk and analyse a crisis. It is important to underline that obviously, the case that the idea and appearance of an economic crisis is not new.

The advancement of the entrepreneur framework and the customary procurement of information have permitted this inquiry to be inspected and justified additionally from a monetary measurable point of view, and speculations hold that certain precise components in the form of different cases are noticeable in the case of an economic crisis. The most critical financial hypotheses in which periodicity is present, can be summarized below. According to Kitchin there are three to five year financial cycles mainly, that are connected to business inventories - which cause variances in financial execution.

This exploration is focused around measurable information distributed by the money related establishments of the United States and the United Kingdom somewhere around and Schumpeter has been used these results and has found that by breaking down the Dow Jones List, the Kitchin speculations still apply.

The hypothesis, which primarily alludes to sectors and is focused around specific investment cycles, is characterised by seven to eleven year periods in which the trough between waves is indicated by overproduction and monetary business emergencies. The periodicity of the specific cycle is obvious in the case of the current breakdown of stock exchange costs such in the case of the collapse of the Russian monetary system during the Russian crisis.

Since the return of major infrastructural venture by organizations and businesses is obvious inside such periods, the economic cycles can be nearly associated with Kuznets' hypothesis on fifteen to twenty year development cycles. A standout amongst the most well-known hypotheses is that of the Kondratiev Long Wave Cycles. Both the up- slants and down-inclines of the wave have their distinctive redundant qualities. Before the up-inclines start, noteworthy changes can be seen in monetary conditions such in the case of strategies for generation and trade change profoundly, the utilization of specialised development quickens and new cash transmission systems.

At the change arrange on the other hand, the social stuns and wars and strains increment appear. At the down-inclines however, the price gap between farming and mechanical products increases and expansions and there is an agricultural depression. The Crisis Management arrangements of organizations show up today in the form of methods for news of lessened working time and lay-offs.

Notwithstanding, rejecting workers can bring long haul issues and in addition advertising transient survival. One of the fundamental presumptions of Knowledge Management is that data and human capital assume an expanding part on the side of the input. A great part of the value of an organization lies in its human capital - the learning dormant in individuals' heads — and this is a component urgent for its competitiveness and enhanced corporate execution.

In a crisis management, nonetheless, organizations give careful consideration to holding information and their holders. They basically utilize the "lawnmower standard" in expense reduction, endeavoring to streamline on the most astounding expense part, that is, compensation. This, nonetheless, must be compelling to a restricted degree. Boda claims that this helps us to comprehend the foundation. When we discuss costs, we give up assets for the purpose of a benefit, and whoever inspects the use of assets will attempt to diminish costs by any methods conceivable.

This methodology, in any case, can be off base. Expenses happen during working, not at the purpose of speculation. We can partition costs into two classes: operational and limit costs, keeping up and saving the state of the advantages. Resources make benefit and expenses must be allocated to their operation. In cases of knowledge based organizations there are learning based operations that exist, human capital is the most gainful resource.

Human capital is a specific decent way of operating since its speculation quality is low -not expecting to be obtained- however its operation is somewhat the only way of operating due to the fact that cost administration can't be proficient when just looking at benefits and costs.

No one but those can oversee costs proficiently when utilizing the best resources and work in the most effective way. Thus, rejecting the idea of human capital equivalents scrapping. In any case, laying-off is in general not such a decent arrangement. Information and learning offering have gotten to be most essential components of authoritative potential in this environment of fast change and eccentrics, since it expands aggressiveness.

Organizations with a more thorough and vital methodology to Knowledge Management are becoming more than the individuals who fail to offer this. Their study reasons that a cognizant methodology to Knowledge Management is insufficient in itself, since a large portion of the organizations do not indicate development. Knowledge Management exercises are conveyed out in a complete and adjusted way.

The McKinsey Management Consultant Company in prompting on procedure moreover contends for hierarchical learning and advancement Barret et al. As indicated by them, those organizations which diminish costs in a subsidence with a specific end goal to streamline, are committing an error. Obviously, cost diminishment creates no transient income and benefit, and so cutting expenses may appear, by all accounts, to be a simple arrangement, with a lot of people unmistakably feeling that they can create investment funds both immediately.

There is after all a fact that may even now be hard to discover in a way out of the emergency, that is, without bringing up issue marks and new spearheading arrangements. General expense cutting and diminishing of costs additionally convey a genuine negative message. The information specialists, such as engineers, who speak to the primary non- material abundance of an association and guarantee its creativity, are left with a negative impression of the organization.

Rather than cut-backs, associations ought to take a key methodology to expenses cut and hold key representatives. The emergency should be considered as an open door. Barret et al. Later this advocacy apparatus may be reached out to all the more profoundly instructed workers and chiefs too. This is something normal, since knowledge management is a new managerial science and it may take some time will be necessary before the various authors and researchers narrow down the theories which are the most representative of what knowledge management is.

Many authors have referred to the various knowledge management approaches. For example Sun Microsystems has referred to the technological approach of knowledge. So there are various schools of thought. From these schools of thought the most important are two; the managerial approach of knowledge management and the critical approach.

Boda, The managerial approach of knowledge management is the school of thought that uses strategies for the adaptation of knowledge management in the companies. This is represented from various authors. The most popular authors are Davenport and Prusak and Nonaka On the other end lies the critical approach school of thought.

Its stance is more critically than the previous one to the theories of knowledge management, management sharing and others. Blackler and Orlikowski are some of the authors that are representing this view. Orlikowski states that there is dichotomy between the various authors and the school of thought that they are representing.

These two schools have some various differences. The first major difference is on the way that they see the information systems. The managerial schools believe that information systems have a crucial role to play on the development of the learning organisation. The information systems are the intermediate between the knowledge and its place of storage.

This definition of KM is significant in that it differentiates from typical information management through its first and last stages. On the other hand McDermott seems to disagree with the last. He agrees that the Information technology has helped many businesses to improve their overall performance but he is claiming that there is a great gap existing in the use of information tools and concepts towards the creation of real knowledge management systems.

In addition to this McDermott sets six characteristics of knowledge distinguish it from information. Despres states the information technology codifies the knowledge and is the mean that carries it to the other parts of an organisation or a community. This means that the knowledge codification is the key to understand and share the knowledge.

These modes are socialisation from tacit to tacit , externalisation from tacit to explicit , combination from explicit to explicit , and internalisation from explicit to tacit. This means that the tacit and the explicit have equal validity and that managers shall look after to join these two elements. So the critical side focuses more to the tacit knowledge and how this will be transformed to an explicit one in order the companies to take advantage of this.

Borghoff and Pareschi say that the transformation of the tacit knowledge is risky and some wrong designed procedures may affect negative the existed knowledge. According to von Krogh et al. Thence it is also required to facilitate interpersonal relationships via thorough conversations to enable knowledge. Davenport et al. Furthermore, pilot ventures over a period of a few years will support the change transformed in place for dependable achievement of Knowledge Management to be accomplished.

In a society driven by the presentation of Knowledge Management at a high level of intentional activity of imparting learning to others, while there is an administration driven presentation of Knowledge Management, focused on and proceeded with improvement, adjustment, and application of particular Knowledge Management techniques are into the center Bornemann et al.

In the long run, in a focused on, efficient execution of Knowledge Management, proper routines make potential on the association's vital - key administration - objectives so as to create, disperse, and assess information. Learning incorporation exercises make existing implied and unequivocal information accessible all through the organization while evaluating information exercises demonstrate the learning accessibility and what it has created after some time, in addition to the degree to which information objectives have been arrived, allowed that adapting exists.

Concerning the estimation of what is consistently realised and on the meta-ability of assessing the value of learning something before learning itself starts as indicated by connectivism. To round off, the recipients of advancement and Knowledge Management go about as outside evaluators, while inner assessment — as a center skill tree — can be done by picturing the improvement of the association's center skills and society.

Bornemann et al. There are three operational layers the knowledge level, the data level, and the action level linked with the five core knowledge processes information, documentation, communication, application, and learning to form a basic knowledge management model Bornemann et al. The individual knowledge 30 and the interaction of the individual members of the organization make up the knowledge level, the available documented knowledge constitutes the data level, whereas both knowledge and data levels provide input for the action level so as, firstly, the organization's processes to be enacted, and secondly, its value processes to be created.

Competition at national and international level is growing and customers are becoming more demanding. In this rapidly changing and highly competitive environment, organizations are invited to meet the new requirements that are presented every day. Organizational knowledge and learning can create the conditions of continuous innovation and of competitive advantage.

The ablest and best guide to achieve this objective, is the Management of Knowledge and Learning. Many theorists of management believe that the phrase "Knowledge Management" is an oxymoron, to the extent that it is extremely difficult to apply technical and administrative processes to something that is not tangible and is found mainly in the knowledge that people have Hedlund, The objective, however, concerning the management of knowledge, is not the emphasis on human resource management practices, but the creation of that business environment that will facilitate and support a systematic way towards the development processes of knowledge, with the ultimate aim of creating business value.

Mentzas, According to Baumard , Knowledge Management is a new administrative practice related to the systematic and collective creation, diffusion and use of business knowledge, to radically improve organizational efficiency, improve business competitiveness and innovation. According to this, the organizations should formulate coherent Knowledge Management strategies that are consistent with the objectives of developing their products and services, the desired penetration targets in new markets and their financial aspirations.

Knowledge Management regards the acquired management process understanding in general Nonaka and Ikujiro, According to Sveiby , it is difficult to define Knowledge Management. For this reason the definition effort is based in two separate sections, depending on the activities of researchers, and two levels of approach.

The individual parts of Knowledge Management, are related to the following. Information Management. Researchers and users have the appropriate training on computers or IT science and are engaged in the development of information systems and artificial intelligence. Knowledge is in this case identified within the objects that can be used in the information systems.

Person - Human management. Researchers have been focusing in philosophy, psychology, sociology or administration and are dealing with the evaluation and improvement of human skills and human behavior. Knowledge is in this case identified within the procedures, the composition of a group skills, which are constantly changing.

The approach levels, which differ each other in terms of core research and their application are the human approach, according to which the person consists the core of research and implementation; and the approach of the organization, according to which the organization consists the research and core application itself.

Davenport and Probst argue that the essence of Knowledge Management is the teamwork on the grounds that the organization is the essence of the composition of people, which seek or follow their personal goals, if neglected or left without guidance.

The mission of the leaders is able to lead people to contribute collectively so as to achieve a common goal, which is translated automatically as sharing information and knowledge with a view to achieving the best possible result. As easy as this may seem in a theoretical level, especially today that the development of information technology enables the collection and sharing of large information, at the level of practical application, there are several difficulties.

He identifies the Knowledge Management as a five-step process, which provides the organization with the ability to create, evaluate, express, support and extend the base of core competencies. More precisely, the creation of knowledge refers to the ability of the organization to develop innovative, useful ideas and effective solutions. The creation of knowledge is not necessarily a start from scratch, thus, it can be derived from existing information, the interaction deriving from the information, or the approach from another angle, or even as a result of applied efforts.

The second phase, the confirmation of Knowledge refers to the extent that an organization can affect knowledge and effectiveness. During this phase, it is necessary to update knowledge, carried out with the continuous interaction between technologies and technical and human resources of the organization. Essentially, it is the continuous redefinition of data and information after verification. The Knowledge codification refers to the variety of ways - with their codes entitled Knowledge, represented so that it becomes possible to provide a spread beyond the members of the organization.

Coding data, information and knowledge can be different, depending on the organization, resulting in the presence of difficulties in the identification and recognition. Thus, the organization must choose a definite way for coding, to avoid any confusion or misunderstanding. The diffusion of knowledge is achieved by the interaction of technologies, technical and human resources of an organization.

The vertical diffusion of knowledge of the leaders of the organization to employees, has until now been proved as non - constructive. Instead, the horizontal diffusion of knowledge among employees, by e-mail or intranet, allowing interactions between staff of different departments of the organization, discussions and interpretation of existing information from different angles, is indirectly increasing the possibilities of reviewing of the authenticity of knowledge.

The last phase of Knowledge Management Bhatt, , is the application of knowledge, which refers to products, processes and services of the organization. It should be noted there is a risk smoldering in addressing Knowledge Management, concerning one's own learning rather than group learning.

In this case, there is no knowledge transmission because the focus deals with individuals resulting in lack of information exchange and thus lack in organizational learning. However, there are some steps and conditions that ensure the success of any Knowledge Management policy. Below are the strategic steps for implementing Knowledge Management.

Bhatt, Determination of business strategic goals. In the case of creation of important strategic goals, Knowledge Management has to gain maximum results. The strategic objectives stated in the business plan of the organization need to be followed by a SWOT analysis that has to be conducted to determine the priorities and objectives. This is crucial, because in most cases the results of Knowledge Management are not obvious in terms of relative cost or other quantitative characteristics, so as to ensure full commitment of management.

Therefore, Knowledge Management team should present as soon as possible the first results. Diagnosis and identification of knowledge gaps, future requirements on knowledge and knowledge of the specific characteristics of the organization. Well-defined strategic objectives have to be analyzed in order to provide an appropriate framework for analyzing gaps in current knowledge and future knowledge needs of the organization.

Knowledge gaps may arise from lack of people, lack of technology or both. The knowledge gaps need to be filled with a list of techniques, such as internal training, hiring new staff, acquire new skills and new knowledge. Possible knowledge gaps could be identified from problems that have been reported in the past, after being discussed with senior management and staff of the organization. During this process, an excess in knowledge may also arise.

Implementation of a culture change policy. In today's competitive work environment many employees do not feel safe in their work places and they are usually concealing their knowledge, which could be used to improve efficiency. This is probably the biggest hurdle for every Knowledge Management activity. People must feel free to exchange ideas and make mistakes. All these minor but still very critical daily activities help an organization to acquire new business knowledge and to build a Knowledge Management culture.

Implementation of a knowledge-mapping tool. The mapping of knowledge is a process that aims to link knowledge description with the people who possess it. In most cases it is difficult to map the knowledge itself while it is easier to create links between a brief description of knowledge and its holders.

However, knowledge in an organization exists in many forms and is being met in various subject areas such as management, production, marketing or sales. Thus, the knowledge to describe and fully understand the processes of the organization, should be formulated in a familiar and easy language in the form of a code. This process is called knowledge codification. There are many ways of creating coding and the chosen one every time should include particular characteristics of knowledge of the specific organization.

For example, a simple knowledge codification could be implicit, explicit, teachable, non-teachable, documented, non-documented, simple, complex, functional, non- functional, theoretic or practical. Therefore, a knowledge map would be created. The creation of a knowledge map does not necessarily reflect the knowledge of an organization, as presented or implied in the organization charts. Hsu and Shen, One of the most common and most important decisions one has to take in order to shape organizational Knowledge Management strategy is to focus on the orientation strategy.

Orientation strategy can be described based on two dimensions that help understanding and explanation of their orientation. Choi and Lee, During systematic strategy, the orientation and focus of the management of knowledge is identified within the system.

This strategy emphasises the capacity of an organization to support the creation, storage, sharing and use of explicitly documented organizational knowledge. The strategy based on this dimension, is in most cases focused on coding and storing knowledge. Typically, knowledge can be codified through information technology. The codified knowledge is more likely to be reused. In this approach the emphasis is strictly based on predefined rules anything that must be done in all possible conditions.

This strategy emphasises knowledge sharing through interpersonal interactions. The key elements of this strategy are the communication processes across the spectrum of the social network of the organization such as expert groups or project teams that contribute to knowledge sharing through interpersonal contacts. This strategy aims to acquire internal and opportunistic knowledge and the informal sharing of it, since knowledge can be acquired in various ways by experienced and competent employees.

Takahashi and Vandenbrink, The systemic approach on the one hand, emphasises on the codified knowledge used in Knowledge Management processes, focusing on encoding and storage of knowledge through IT and contributes to the gathering of formal knowledge sharing. The human — centric approach on the other hand, emphasises on dialogue through social networks and personal contacts, focuses on knowledge acquisition through experienced and capable people and contributes to the acquisition of informal knowledge sharing.

Systemic strategy corresponds to grade coding and storage of organizational knowledge, to the extent of access and use of explicit knowledge. The human - centric strategy corresponds to the acquisition and sharing of tacit knowledge mainly through interpersonal interaction as in the case of employees' conversation and constructive dialogue. Hsu and Shen, 2. The market in which they operate is constantly changing and the uncertainty increases as competitors multiply, technologies evolve, consumer demands and changing products and services become quickly outdated.

Therefore, organizations that invest in Knowledge Management, become able to cope and overcome changes successfully while development is occurring in the foreground tending to influence the way forward. Today the success of an organization is incorporated in its operating systems, with knowledge-based activities in order to develop new products and services and create closer relationships with its customers, who are the organization's orientation.

With the adoption of these procedures, the modern enterprise is seeking to acquire a long- term and long promising competitive advantage. Most organizations have understood that knowledge is the way according to which they may be helped in order to cope with the changing developments in the marketplace, posing the right questions and following the right moves that will lead to the finding of the appropriate responses.

Knowledge Management is essential in order for an organization to apply the appropriate knowledge so as to solve a problem. Bhatt, Knowledge can help drastically in decision making. Experience from previous procedures, the initiatives taken, any failures or successes generally, show that the efforts made can be accessed and revoked, in order for them to contribute significantly to the decision making.

The environment in which an organization is operating, is characterised by the existence and function of many competing organizations. To survive, an organization must keep up with developments in order to address any threats. This is a long and difficult process where the Knowledge Management can be a valuable tool for the rebuttal and degradation of any competitors. Bhatt, In cases of retirement, resignation or dismissal of an employee, the organization may lack in experience and specialised knowledge possessed.

In particular, in cases of dismissal or when the employee resigns, knowledge and experience can be exploited by the new company by which the employee will be hired. Knowledge Management can help an organization to store and maintain the critical skills of employees in the event of a dismissal for any reason, so that the organization maintains its manpower. Ngulube and Lwoga, The survival of the largest and well-known organization is a concept that has been overcome in a knowledge-based economy.

Actual cases have shown that even large organizations, which did not believe in the benefits of Knowledge Management sooner or later were led to stagnation or have been closed. By contrast, smaller organizations which have adopted the philosophy of Knowledge Management, have been benefited. Ngulube and Lwoga, As shown above, Knowledge Management is the most valuable resource of modern business and the systematic utilization of its most critical success factor in both the internal of the organization and the relationships developed with the external environment - customers, partners, suppliers, competitors -.

This introduction of the three levels, the internal part of the organization, its environment and the organization itself, helps to the highlight of the importance of Knowledge Management today. Bhatt, Knowledge Management at an individual level, helps people to do their job and save time by improvisation of decision-making and problem solving. It also creates a sense of social ties within the organization.

Moreover, it helps people to stay informed, while it offers challenges and opportunities for contribution. Knowledge Management within a practical community develops professional skills. It also promotes peer guidance while it facilitates effective networking and collaboration. It also develops a code of professional ethics that members can follow while it can promote the use of a common language. Knowledge Management at organizational level, helps strategy. It can promote the solving of problems quickly while it disseminates best practices.

It also improves knowledge embodied in products and services. Knowledge Management improve the crossing of ideas and the enhancing of opportunities for innovation. It allows the organizations to be ranked above the average competition. While it builds organizational memory. Bourandas and Papalexandris set as a fundamental objective of in-company training the idea of pushing the organization towards success, adding value to the work of employees.

According to the above, education is used as a means to develop new skills, in order for the time to be reduced. This way the organization can adapt to new ideas and improve the knowledge and attitudes of its employees. Thus, there is a change in the behavior of the employees which involves the acquisition of new technical knowledge in handling quality and problem-solving skills and attitudes defining the objective of education as the transformation of knowledge. Training is also a learning process.

The training, as education is planned, is an activity that brings employees to the desired pattern within the process of high performance, under the guidance and practice. The desired standard work performance involves the performance of work as designed in the strategic planning of the organization Bourandas and Papalexandris, The difference lies in the fact that the training is setting broad goals, and is based on many ways of thinking and acting. This indicates a certain level of education according to the National Employment Institute NHRF according to which, training is considered as a specialised way of addressing the workers or those who are seeking for employment.

In the literature review there are two basic forms of training in any organization. These activities are aimed at all employees in order for them to realise the organization's policy through regulations and procedures. The importance and the characteristics of organizational culture are then discussed and analyzed, and the relationship of culture and knowledge management is examined.

This review leads up to the justification and the description of the main research hypotheses. Some researchers define organizational culture as the rules of observable behavior in human interaction within the organization, whereas other researchers define it as involving those values which are dominant within the organization.

One of the most common and acceptable definitions of organizational culture states that it comprises of shared values, beliefs and norms within the organization as well as behavioral patterns for translating them into general practice within the organization as well. As per the view of Schein , culture is a unique kind of coherent system of assumptions and basic values which differentiate one group of organizations from others.

Hence organizational culture can be considered as a common thread throughout the organization through which seamless communication takes place. There are numerous definitions that have been put forth in context of organizational culture. There is one common element which is the pattern of doing things within the organization. In this case, if the organizational culture is strong, it will be consistent, widely shared and clear to one and all within the organization Kidwell et al.

It is important to understand the fact the culture does not at all belong to individuals but to groups Kidwell et al. Culture is dynamic; it is an ever evolving process and not at all static. The individuals within the organization are important in shaping and refining the organizational culture. High-performing firms are organizations which have a strong culture throughout the organization, as well as a uniqueness.

Culture is one of those elements that differentiates one organization from another and provides organizations with a definite coherence and self-confidence. Culture satisfies the basic need for affiliation and security of individuals within the organization. Important concepts such as organizational learning, organizational development and others can be effectively deployed only when organizational culture fosters and backs them in the right manner.

It is important for managers to have the right interpretation and understanding of the organizational culture, as this will help them to frame and implement appropriate strategies for various strategic decisions. In various earlier research it has already been established that organizational culture has a definite impact on people working with the organization. Culture is one of the keys to driving commitment, productivity and profitability alike.

This implies that organizational culture also has a definite impact on the bottom line of the organization. Kronan, On the other hand, any kind of cultural misunderstanding can be painful for the management as well as the associates of the organization. It is important to have a comprehensive assessment of various cultural issues at the organizational level in order to better and more deeply understand what works for the betterment of the organization and what can be improved for the positive progress of the organization.

The very nature of organizational culture affects the manner in which the organization operates within the market place; the accomplishment of goals and the control of the organizational culture is yet another important subject in relation to managing the organization in the right manner. If the management of the organization fails to understand the organizational culture in the intended manner, it may lead to unnecessary wastage of resources in terms of manpower, time and money.

This may also lead to conflicts, cynicism and disillusionment within various organizational levels as well, which may accentuate the problems of the organization. The core values need to be duly recognised and embedded deep within the culture to reap the intended benefits. These views are described below. In the view of Geert Hofstede , there are various approaches and perspectives in relation to organizational culture that need to be explored in order to understand the concept more clearly and deeply.

Organizational culture can manifest itself, among other things, in terms of symbols, heroes, rituals, and values. On the other hand national cultures differ on the value front. Hofstede explored the variations in relation to national cultures of more than 50 countries across the globe. The study revealed five independent dimensions of organizational values which are: power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, and Confucian dynamism.

Power distance is a measure of the inequality that exists between bosses and their subordinates as well as to the extent to which this is accepted. Uncertainty avoidance is the degree to which an individual or the associate working with the organization is comfortable with or in other case feels threatened by ambiguous, uncertain situations, or either it can be defined as the extent an individual can or cannot tolerate uncertainty and attempts to mitigate it by establishing more structure.

Kronan, Individualism vs. This parameter renders some kind of explanation to the fast economic development of various Asian economies. This dimension points out the selective promotion of a particular set of ethics that are prevalent and common in Confucian teachings. The various teachings that play an important role in this include thrift, perseverance, a sense of shame and adherence to hierarchy.

All these pave the way for fast economic development. Part of exploring this parameter involves assessing the impact of long-term as well as short-term orientations. The position of the organization with respect to the above mentioned dimensions is decided in part by the business or industry the organization is in. The above leads to conclusions in relation to how organizational culture can be managed more successfully. In relation to international business, this implies managing both national and organizational cultural differences at the same time.

This implies that certain structures carve certain types of cultures as reflected in various researches. Therefore there needs to be a simple framework for categorizing cultures. As per the viewpoint extended by Charles Handy , there are four types of organizational culture which can be easily identified and they are described below.

Role Culture is one of the most easily recognizable organizational cultures. This culture type is epitomised by what associates tend to think of as the conventional hierarchical structure. In general, this is often called a bureaucracy - controlled by procedures, role descriptions and authority definitions. In role culture, job position is the focal point, and co-ordination is pivotal. The strength lies in predictability, stability and consistency. The role culture carves out a highly structured and stable organization that includes precise job descriptions, usually with a single offering.

This culture is essentially impersonal and by implication restrictive, suppressing individual attempts at improvement. It is not complicated to follow a role-oriented culture; change, however, is very slow to come and can be imbibed through fear — not a good atmosphere for positive progress. Task Culture is one of those cultures wherein the management is basically concerned with evolving the ongoing and successful solutions to organizational challenges.

Performance in this case is measured in terms of outcomes and of the hurdles that are overcome in the process. A definite structure clearly exists, but it is flexible and therefore capable of being formed and reformed depending upon the task in hand. As per the viewpoint of Handy , the task culture can be linked to a net where the power comes through junctions or interstices. Thus the organization is more loosely bound and depends less on the role model.

It can be said to be a small team approach. The impetus lies more on outcomes and problem solving, as well as getting things done. Associates are empowered with discretion and control over their work. The influence is exerted from the focal point and lines of communication radiate from the centre but also link sideways and across the organization.

In this case, power is derived from the apex and it is the personal relationship with the person the matters rather than the position within the organization. The prime influence paves the way for that kind of organizational structure which is very flexible and responds to any type of change very quickly. This type of culture is often found in small entrepreneurial organizations and political parties but then this type of culture tends to break down as soon as it grows, since the web which is the essence of this culture is difficult to maintain in a large size.

If there is any kind of organizational structure at all, then it is present only to aid the persons that are present within it. This kind of culture is present for the people concerned and does not have any kind of subordinate objective whatsoever. It is not common to find such a culture throughout the entire organization. It is although present in small areas or teams of larger organizational setups.

This culture is more prevalent is highly educated and articulate associates who have come together owing to common sets of interests, including academic researchers, solicitors, consultants and the like. Individuals in such a culture tend to operate and work independently. Associates have strong values in relation to their work and therefore it is extremely difficult for organizations to manage and bring effective change for the betterment of the organization as a whole.

The organizations exist in such cases only to foster the progress of individuals towards their respective goals. Hence, the first two cultural models are considered to be role- or task-centric, whereas the latter two are discussed as individual-centric. In this case the first and the fourth variable deal with the associate as an organizational participant, whereas second and third variable deal with the associate as a member of the production team.

Culture and Knowledge Management are elements that have attracted the interest of many authors. Husted and Michailova claim that the knowledge management process is taking place within a certain cultural context. Malhotra argues that a significant hurdle on effective knowledge management can be culture — national and organisational culture.

The culture should evolve in such a way that it supports knowledge sharing and encourages individuals to express their views and ideas freely in order to buffer the process of creating new knowledge. The traditional culture and the knowledge culture are different in many ways. The following table illustrates some of their basic differences. Table 1. Difference between the traditional culture and the knowledge culture.

Source: www. As a matter of fact, conflict often emerges in relation to knowledge management, where people realise that this new approach means that they are expected to share their knowledge. Knowledge sharing raises questions like: How will I be exposed if I share xyz? What harm will come to me if my knowledge is more widely known?

Why would I want to talk to anyone about what I know? What will they do with my previous hard-earned knowledge? However there are cultures that do not promote knowledge sharing. This means that they may have difficulties in adopting a knowledge management strategy that relies on loose structures, in the elimination of hierarchy, and in adherence to strict laws and regulations. Generally, employees would not welcome any change on their social routines of the workplace.

It should also be mentioned that knowledge management includes several social processes —like socialisation— needed to have a successful knowledge management programme. Delong and Fahey claim that culture is often the main obstacle of a knowledge management programme and a source of conflicts or even the reason behind the failure of a KM programme.

Culture can play a determining role in the development of a knowledge management programme. In some cases it may encourage knowledge management, for example in cultures with a low distance from power. Baskerville has identified a number of limitations, such as the assumption of stability of cultural differences. Nonetheless, this work has been used in a number of researches in order to understand work-related differences caused from cultural differences. From their point of view, Pauleen and Murphy claim that the concept of Knowledge Management is unrealistic and counterproductive as a universal principle.

As a matter of fact, Multinational Companies MNC are a vacuum of different cultures which are compressed into one giant organisation Ang and Masshingham, The same authors also claim that any Knowledge Management model that examines MNC must not exclude the influence of national culture. However, there are some authors like Simonin who believe that cultural distance does not affect knowledge transfer, while Gupta and Govindarajan claim that national culture does not have any effects when a MNC transfers knowledge from its head office to its subsidiaries.

A key point in this field is the work by Ang and Masshingham and their survey on whether MNCs can standardize their KM practices in respect with national culture. Regarding the impact of national culture on small- to medium-sized enterprises SMEs , in terms of knowledge management, things differ.

A basic assumption is that SMEs focus on local or in some cases on regional markets. However some SMEs may expand abroad. Mammadov and Galusca have examined the case of a Turkish SME that expands in Sweden and the difficulties that national culture has brought in terms of knowledge transfer to the Swedish personnel. Indeed, small- and medium-sized firms face many difficulties when operating within a different culture, while larger firms are based on more multi-cultural backgrounds.

Another issue is the creation of global practices in culture and its impact. There are many professional areas where culture has created dominant and global trends. The creation of a universal culture can help the promotion and implementation of a Knowledge Management programme, as well as lift several barriers. Usoro and Kuofie, Within an organisation, especially a multinational one, there may be several convergences regarding the culture of its members, however cultural gaps will exist and every knowledge officer must consider them as an important factor that may affect the end result of a knowledge management programme.

The Chinese culture is characterised as a high context culture, while the German culture is a low context culture. Within a multinational organisation there may be a dominant culture, however employees and managers will still be affected by their native national culture. If one considers the case of knowledge sharing in a global organisation, the knowledge officer must think on how this will be transmitted.

Using the example made by Usoro and Kuofie a multinational organisation must find a way to communicate with employees who have a different cultural background. On the other hand a knowledge officer must use formal procedures in order to allow employees coming from oriental cultures to communicate but also to allow them to share knowledge. However, the big issue arrives when those two cultures coexist in the same social framework, such as in the workplace.

While there must be an organisational culture that will include elements which will be mutual for all members of the organisation, nevertheless the national culture still exists and in some cases it may even dominate several branches of the organisation. Yet in smaller organisations there cannot be such gaps, especially in small and medium organisations where there are no cultural confrontations.

This is another issue that needs to be taken into account in relevant research. As we saw, culture is the way in which individuals do things within a social environment; it follows that culture can also be identified within the daily organisational routines. Taking the example from an organisation that punishes mistakes, a fairly common cultural characteristic in many firms, the manager of the knowledge management project must study the culture carefully before going ahead with a knowledge management programme.

If not, the Knowledge Management programme may create conflicts due to misunderstanding of cultural issues. For example, organisational resistance to internal Knowledge Management efforts also stems from hierarchical structures that function to reinforce norms of competition by creating winners and losers De Long and Seeman, If the organisation punishes mistakes, and that historically has been a fairly common cultural characteristic within many firms, if this is a characteristic of the organisation, then the management will face many difficulties in order to motivate its employees to share their knowledge in an open system.

The reason behind this is the fear that the knowledge that the individual will contribute may mislead the company Ardichvili et al. If people do not feel comfortable about sharing what they know through internal Knowledge Management efforts, and fear that it will put them at a disadvantage in relation to other colleagues, then knowledge hoarding will result.

Knowledge hoarding is linked to the legacy of Taylorism, fears of being replaceable in the company, as well as a manifestation of societal stereotypes around job position, status and worthiness. Then, control of ideas is often the case. Additionally, it is not only the systems and structures that can become a barrier but the fact that in general people resist change.

When management decides to initiate knowledge management techniques, it is probable that they resist, because they do not like changes due to various reasons such as job losses. An example is given by Griffiths et al. The use of I. Indeed, people are used to their own habits and processes and usually do not appreciate change.

Thus, conflicts arise until they are persuaded of the usefulness of the new initiative or when the company has managed to gain the trust of its employees.

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This means that decisions over the use of Knowledge Management during an economic crisis shall not be abandon. Also, Cohen et al. Most of them have a narrow-minded culture which does not allow the flow of fresh ideas and innovation. In a similar manner Pantzalis and Park have mentioned the fact that there is a lack of in-depth research as it concerns the use of knowledge management in Greece but mostly about the lack of information and of information which will indicate on Greek firms, mostly SMEs on how to capitalise the use of knowledge management.

At this case, it is essential to mention that Cohen et al. Cohen et al. Gummesson have argued that the crisis is a complex structure. Gummesson has argued that many SMEs and larger firms in Greece and the rest of the South European countries which were hit from the crisis have not been able to handle the complex nature of the information related with the crisis.

Sudden events and mounting problems created from the crisis have resulted in the need of having an effective system of knowledge management. However there is a definitely gap of research and of framework of practices. The above researches indicate that there is a clear need to investigate the notion of knowledge management as strategic enabler during an economic crisis. There is a limited research on this issue but also a lack of qualitative info.

Even the more recent research in Greece made from Cohen et al. Furthermore, this a rather new phenomenon and there is going to be a need for more information on this issue. The statement implies that tacit knowledge can be transferred in the same form only from one person to another. Also tacit knowledge can never be completely converted into explicit knowledge. Care should be taken to minimise the losses that escalate with each time the process of knowledge transfer takes place.

Boda, 2. The overall process is referred to as SECI process. The process involves four different phases which are socialization, externalizations, combination and internationalization. Biemer and Lyberg, Each of the four phases of the overall SECI process puts forth at least one manner in which knowledge can be created and the overall process deals with making sure that knowledge is relevant to the problem in consideration.

This is not the case that four phases follow each other, there may be any sequence that four phases come in. The overall process of SECI is very complex. Each phase of the overall cycle depicts a different amalgamation of the three prime variables so involved in the process. The three key variables that are an integral part of the process are described below. This particular step is further complicated by the facts that how will the various variables interplay with each other is largely latent.

The primary purpose of this process is getting each of the participants to experience and adopt different solutions discussed in the group. The outcome of this process is shared knowledge in relation to each of the perspectives in the group. Thus it is more of a learning experience wherein individuals get to learn a lot from the practices that others adopt in different situations. It is a process which gives high impetus on observation rather than seeking reason as to why particular solutions were implemented.

This involves varied forms of excursions, participating in observations as well as on site studies. Ambos and Schlegelmilch, Externalization This phase involves each of the persons to take on the new sympathized knowledge and render their own interpretations for the same. It also includes understanding past experiences of almost similar circumstances and also the possible solutions for the same.

This aids the process of conversion of tacit knowledge into an explicit statement of facts. All this paves way for creation of large repository of good conceptual knowledge in relation to the present situation for the group. Kidwell et al. The knowledge so gathered in the process differentiates itself for the systematic knowledge that is acquired in the combination phase.

Combination Phase In this particular phase, the explicit knowledge that is gathered from the externalization phase is shared or can be said to be transferred within the organizations. The knowledge in this phase is acquired with the aid of seminars, panel debates and other kinds if intellectual discussions. In a similar fashion to socialization, the ultimate outcome is the common goal in relation to solving the problem and also resolving the problem at hand. The phase of combination aims at rendering something that is akin to a mission statement or something of kind of best practices list in which everyone gets a chance to contribute.

It is this process that takes systemic knowledge of the combination phase undergoes the process of interpretation and then converting the same into action. The overall result of the process is churning out of operational knowledge in relation to how to deal with the problem. In this phase the goal is interpreted differently by each of the associates.

The different interpretations are then summed up to carve out a common set of external knowledge. This will then go on to determine a different and unique task for each of the individuals within the organization. The final part of the overall SECI process involves sharing of knowledge in the new socialization phase.

The SECI process lies at the heart of the process of knowledge management as it is the only way of transferring knowledge. The process of SECI does not render any kind of explanation in relation to the source of knowledge.

In relation to exploring the ideas of learning, the fields of knowledge management has explored numerous ways of findings knowledge and hence add on to the present options that are present in organizational learning toolbox. As already said tacit and explicit knowledge can be expressed in terms of knowing how and knowing that respectively. The science of knowledge management also renders a brief description as to how various types of knowledge come into picture with the deployment of community practices and also via knowledge brokerages.

Barney, 2. This involves taking help of computer aided expert systems; although these expert systems are not that advanced that they can draw complex conclusions by them. Expert systems can only draw conclusions from the available data. In more than one ways, it is how the concept of knowledge management is put into practice.

It involves mining of large amount of data in quest for knowledge and with the aid of repeated processing is distilled down to form new, not so obvious concepts. The basic idea behind this framework goes back to the foundation of the concept of organizational knowledge wherein the knowledge processes in relation to individuals were extrapolated onto organizations. In recent times, these kinds of idea are expanded to render similar kinds of descriptions for larger communities that have an inclination towards similar kinds of activities and interests.

As the purview of knowledge management expanded, the so called larger communities expanded outside organizational boundaries as well. With such a large size of such groups, they contain everything from associates to smaller groups to even larger organizations or even entire states as well.

In such large groups problem in relation to new knowledge is not about inventing knowledge but is about how to actually find that knowledge in the vast network and how to transfer it when needed. The process in this case is referred to as sourcing and grafting of knowledge. Biemer and Lyberg, 2. In other words, we can say that it is about understanding what is missing from the current knowledge base.

This calls for having a firm grasp in relation to the present knowledge base. It also happens that organizations overlook their present knowledge base in quest for new knowledge. In a nutshell, we can say meta- knowledge is knowledge about knowledge. It is a depiction of knowing the reason. Meta-knowledge facilitates knowledge sharing within communities of practice. In order to suffice those needs, there has to be real contact with the relevant knowledge holders. This implies that either there should be direct interaction with experts or with someone who can guide in the right direction.

Thus it important to understand that access to knowledge is not much of knowing how but rather of knowing who. Overall empathic knowledge is the very skill or art of knowing who to ask for advice, knowing who to request for what, what can work and so on. This kind of knowledge comes from having a large network of contacts. The word empathic points towards having feeling or emotional connect for other people and understanding them as well.

It is the art of knowing how to know more and more. This kind of knowledge is less personal and more structured in comparison to empathic knowledge. It is important to understand the common patterns within the functions that are present within the knowledge oriented organizations.

This kind of knowledge is present within the organization and paves way for understanding different kinds of bottlenecks and gatekeeper roles. All these are present within the organizational network and they at times even control the flow of knowledge within the organization as well. They all collate to form the larger picture for the organization.

Meta knowledge renders an understanding of what kinds of knowledge needs are present as well as render a means of forecasting the future needs as well. The key component in the process of knowledge management is to nurture that kind of environment which fosters higher degree of mutual trust. If there is trust there will be effective knowledge sharing as well. But on the other hand if there is no trust, then all is in vain. Even if the efforts are well intentioned, elaborate and thought out, still they will not be able to suffice the purpose in the intended manner.

It is important that knowledge workers are skilled enough as well as in a position to identify what knowledge is relevant for their organization. Without this ability of making the correct differentiation, all the efforts stand in vain and are of no use to the organization as well. Boda, In these days, tacit knowledge is becoming apparent and thereby the distinction between knowledge and information has to be very clear.

This made way for the concept of knowledge brokerage wherein it is not just important to know what you need to know but also what others around you might be interested in knowing. Not only this, but it is equally important to understand what implications knowledge management can have for economic crisis management. The perspective rendered by SECI adds an entire new dimension of various crisis management tasks.

The mist important application of knowledge management is to foster learning at the times of crisis. At the time of crisis, there is very little time available for self-reflection and reform craft that is in general inferred by post crisis learning. Hence, relying on external expertise in such cases is worth the efforts so involved in the process.

It also can assist in transferring relevant expert knowledge. Importantly, there are five uses, each of which incorporates a varied set of SECI transfer modes. It is the concept of knowledge management that adds granularity to the overall process of SECI. In case of knowledge management gatekeepers are just not passive filters but they are full-fledged knowledge workers who are in quest for the required information all the time.

Also there are certain limitations with the process of knowledge management as it may be biased as the human element is involved in it. Another problem with knowledge management is that, by the definition external experts will not be a part of present crisis management team, thereby where the two must interact; they have a risk of succumbing to the new group syndrome wherein unfamiliar composition of the group makes it even harder to raise divergent opinions.

But then the involvement of knowledge workers should ease out the issue to certain degree. However, there are some common elements which can help us to understand what is behind the notion of a crisis. A crisis consists a period during which the system does not function correctly thus there needs to be specific actions so as to deal with the changes. During a crisis there is dismal economic performance.

During this period, the value of institutions, particularly financial institutions, falls at unprecedented speed and the production is low failing to meet the levels of demand. During a crisis there need to be immediate corrective actions due to the fact that the system does not function in a proper way.

A crisis can be experienced throughout the main operations of an organization, therefore the organization needs strategic leads so as to control and manage the changes so as to control the direction of the events. Cockram and van den Heuvel, According to Griffin the outcome of a financial crisis is a number of negative effects into the business environment.

For example, in the case of Greece the state had to face a huge public debt and deficits. In order to reduce those, the government took decisions including high corporate taxes which created a negative climate for businesses. The result was the profit margins were reduced and along with a lack of efficient and leaderships many multinationals had to either to disinvest or to downsize.

On many occasions the crisis was used an excuse to violate labor relations and reduce salaries or even cut jobs. The economic crisis that exists worldwide is something generally accepted by economists.

Countries are on the edge of going default. Also market failures like bankruptcies are an everyday phenomenon. The economic crisis is depicted by slow growth rates as well as high level of unemployment, way above its natural rate of unemployment. The reasons for such an economic crisis could be found in many theories like the lack of infrastructure of many countries, an explosive public debt that suffocated almost the Greek economy and perhaps alterations in consumer demand which make some professions and products obsolete.

Knowledge management on the other hand is potentially a tool that could help companies, states and even individuals grow some tacit and explicit knowledge in order to protect themselves against the economic crisis. Cockram and van den Heuvel, 2. People that live and operate within a specific economic system face at some point or another economic crisis. Potentially they could observe their causes and the outcome it has. Individual learning is the set of knowledge that empirically has been acquired by life experiences and behavioural psychology.

Knowledge management could be a useful tool to deal with the economic crisis, since by disseminating knowledge through the planet, through social networks and the Internet, cost savings can be made. Knowledge management actually tries to resolve problems of the economic crisis in one part of the globe, using specific knowledge that has been got in other parts of the planet. Huczynski and Buchanan write a specific usage of knowledge management with the help of technology.

A specific practice of knowledge management is the intelligent search engine. With this tool it is easy for a firm, or governmental organisation to transmit knowledge, data and ideas to other members of this group. Experience, best practices and knowledge by other members of an organisation against a common problem can lead to serious cost saving, as well as reducing opportunity costs of missed chances.

Thierauf mentions an interesting opinion about knowledge management. Knowledge management not only reports what is economic crisis, but also the causes of the problem and way more. In the past, a management information system told the decision maker what had happened, but not why and what should be done. Thierauf, McDermott also discusses the issues of knowledge management and how it can be used, in my case, the economic crisis problem. Sharing knowledge involves guiding someone through our thinking or using our insights to help them see their own situation better.

McDermott describes methods that could help an organisation overcome specific problems that arise while doing business operations. One of this is by leveraging knowledge with help coming from humans as well as the use of information systems.

There are specific software programmes that are used to track down an issue, share knowledge and provide solutions through tacit and explicit knowledge. The Kahnsept Knowledge Management System is one of those software programmes. So in the case of examining the reasons of the global economic crisis its organisation could gather information and knowledge from other parts of the world, or from other departments within the same firm.

These items of knowledge could be gathered together, segmented, analysed and become available to stakeholders that might use them effectively. The International Monetary Fund for example wants to now as soon as possible which countries are on the edge of bankruptcy. Apart from empirically observing such an issue, the I. F might install a knowledge management system to carefully transmit knowledge and discuss best practices in combating such a problem. Analyzing the reasons and causes of the economic crisis is also a managerial tool to help deal with the problem, and ideally try to find opportunities within the economic crisis.

To facilitate knowledge management many organisations use knowledge management systems. These knowledge management systems could for example indicate reasons and causes of the economic crisis and the high unemployment rate it creates.

Also through the knowledge management systems some standard operating procedures might arise, thus leading to some relatively safe assumptions for the future. Nickerson, Data flow charts and data mining are ways to track down problems that are created by the economic crisis.

Knowledge management is a science that does not merely keep records of various issues. It tends to create through the use of computers specific functions and procedures firstly to determine what knowledge the company or organisation already has, and what is lacking. Then this knowledge should be documented in policies and procedure manuals or even business policy procedures.

Lastly transmitting knowledge to the whole organisation could be done in two ways. Either by written manuals and standard operating procedures or by human interface. Human interface involves meetings, teamwork, job assignments and on the job training. A member in a bank, which faces problems caused by the economic crisis, could learn how to deal with the problem, via the help of knowledge management.

Suppose a bank loan a financial manager has issued is unpaid and seriously overdue. A solution to the problem could be copying best practices from other branches of the bank thus providing a meaningful solution to the specific case. Team building and managerial effort require sharing knowledge and best practices in order to deal with the problems the economic crisis has brought.

Finally, technology is closely related to knowledge management. If it had not been for technology, then it would have been difficult for the dissemination of information to many different members of a group. Fensel, According to McConnell and Brue there are some reasons that can cause a financial crisis.

The book illustrates the examples of Mexico and south-east countries which in deed had serious economic crises during the s. So knowledge management could use this experience of financial crises and use it effectively in preventing similar problems to happen again. The only drawback of a knowledge management system is that it is limited to the guidelines and data that are inserted to it. Providing the data are accurate, there is little flexibility for new data to be incorporated immediately, thus leaving a lag time between new information is integrated into the old one.

Knowledge management systems should adjust to new conditions. And also an important issue with information nowadays is its huge quantity, which requires careful picking up. Today the business environment is changing rapidly. Skyrme had summarized the drivers that lead to the development of knowledge management. Marler states that the rate of change in technologies is so quick, that it does not allow enough time to develop subject matter experts, training courses, and human resource interventions.

Nevertheless, not only technologies are changing rapidly, as well as products and product-lines etc. Now, it is rapidly becoming an integral business function for many organisations as they realise that competitiveness hinges on effective management of intellectual properties. In a relatively quiet and rapid way, the concept had penetrated into many different functions and processes of business.

This is perhaps the best possible set of outcomes from knowledge management. Rather than becoming a stand-alone business fad, the management of knowledge is best accomplished by becoming embedded in other aspects of business. Ironically, the best future for knowledge management would be for it to become so pervasive and common that it seems invisible. Jarzombek commentates that there is no real management of knowledge as it is internal to individuals; yet it is possible to set the right environment in order to promote the sharing of information that derives from this tacit knowledge.

Stecking commentates that there is at least some grade to which knowledge may be managed. So the main issued here is to manage the knowledge and that is what the knowledge management examines. Hofstede et al. It is actually the method to assist any organisation towards the understanding based on won experiences; it is the means of storing and referring to past knowledge towards the solving of problems, of learning in a dynamic manner, of achieving effective strategic planning and of making sound decisions, of providing flexibility, of constantly upgrading the intellectual assets and overall organisational intelligence.

Bryman, According to Malhotra , knowledge management may shield the organisation against discontinuous and rapid environmental changes by assisting its adaptation, survival and overall competence since it promotes the processes that are effectively utilising information as well as the innovative capacity of human beings.

A recent World Bank report agrees that there is no common definition for what is Knowledge Management; most definitions are linked to the generation, capture, or dissemination of know-how World Bank, Carter and Scarbrough are concluding that the main definitions of the knowledge management are about intellectual capital, knowledge assets and workplace and organisational learning.

From some further reading of others authors such as Nonaka , Davenport and Prusak and Marler there can be assumed that knowledge management are some practices best practices and procedures that can create knowledge within the environment of an organisation and transform it to a source of competitive advantage. The following figure illustrates the Knowledge Cycle. Figure 1. This is a circle which starts from the creation of knowledge.

Then it goes from the storage and the distribution of the knowledge within the firm, so to be used from the individuals who will use it to acquire and learn new knowledge. At this point, it is useful to refer on the fact that this circle does not have an end. When the individual will acquire and use the new knowledge, then he will start again a new knowledge, since knowledge is not static but it needs to be renewed very often.

Hamvas claims that before starting to talk about the genuine nature of an economic crisis, we ought to ask if we are able to talk and analyse a crisis. It is important to underline that obviously, the case that the idea and appearance of an economic crisis is not new. The advancement of the entrepreneur framework and the customary procurement of information have permitted this inquiry to be inspected and justified additionally from a monetary measurable point of view, and speculations hold that certain precise components in the form of different cases are noticeable in the case of an economic crisis.

The most critical financial hypotheses in which periodicity is present, can be summarized below. According to Kitchin there are three to five year financial cycles mainly, that are connected to business inventories - which cause variances in financial execution. This exploration is focused around measurable information distributed by the money related establishments of the United States and the United Kingdom somewhere around and Schumpeter has been used these results and has found that by breaking down the Dow Jones List, the Kitchin speculations still apply.

The hypothesis, which primarily alludes to sectors and is focused around specific investment cycles, is characterised by seven to eleven year periods in which the trough between waves is indicated by overproduction and monetary business emergencies. The periodicity of the specific cycle is obvious in the case of the current breakdown of stock exchange costs such in the case of the collapse of the Russian monetary system during the Russian crisis.

Since the return of major infrastructural venture by organizations and businesses is obvious inside such periods, the economic cycles can be nearly associated with Kuznets' hypothesis on fifteen to twenty year development cycles. A standout amongst the most well-known hypotheses is that of the Kondratiev Long Wave Cycles. Both the up- slants and down-inclines of the wave have their distinctive redundant qualities. Before the up-inclines start, noteworthy changes can be seen in monetary conditions such in the case of strategies for generation and trade change profoundly, the utilization of specialised development quickens and new cash transmission systems.

At the change arrange on the other hand, the social stuns and wars and strains increment appear. At the down-inclines however, the price gap between farming and mechanical products increases and expansions and there is an agricultural depression.

The Crisis Management arrangements of organizations show up today in the form of methods for news of lessened working time and lay-offs. Notwithstanding, rejecting workers can bring long haul issues and in addition advertising transient survival. One of the fundamental presumptions of Knowledge Management is that data and human capital assume an expanding part on the side of the input.

A great part of the value of an organization lies in its human capital - the learning dormant in individuals' heads — and this is a component urgent for its competitiveness and enhanced corporate execution. In a crisis management, nonetheless, organizations give careful consideration to holding information and their holders. They basically utilize the "lawnmower standard" in expense reduction, endeavoring to streamline on the most astounding expense part, that is, compensation.

This, nonetheless, must be compelling to a restricted degree. Boda claims that this helps us to comprehend the foundation. When we discuss costs, we give up assets for the purpose of a benefit, and whoever inspects the use of assets will attempt to diminish costs by any methods conceivable.

This methodology, in any case, can be off base. Expenses happen during working, not at the purpose of speculation. We can partition costs into two classes: operational and limit costs, keeping up and saving the state of the advantages. Resources make benefit and expenses must be allocated to their operation. In cases of knowledge based organizations there are learning based operations that exist, human capital is the most gainful resource.

Human capital is a specific decent way of operating since its speculation quality is low -not expecting to be obtained- however its operation is somewhat the only way of operating due to the fact that cost administration can't be proficient when just looking at benefits and costs. No one but those can oversee costs proficiently when utilizing the best resources and work in the most effective way. Thus, rejecting the idea of human capital equivalents scrapping.

In any case, laying-off is in general not such a decent arrangement. Information and learning offering have gotten to be most essential components of authoritative potential in this environment of fast change and eccentrics, since it expands aggressiveness.

Organizations with a more thorough and vital methodology to Knowledge Management are becoming more than the individuals who fail to offer this. Their study reasons that a cognizant methodology to Knowledge Management is insufficient in itself, since a large portion of the organizations do not indicate development. Knowledge Management exercises are conveyed out in a complete and adjusted way.

The McKinsey Management Consultant Company in prompting on procedure moreover contends for hierarchical learning and advancement Barret et al. As indicated by them, those organizations which diminish costs in a subsidence with a specific end goal to streamline, are committing an error. Obviously, cost diminishment creates no transient income and benefit, and so cutting expenses may appear, by all accounts, to be a simple arrangement, with a lot of people unmistakably feeling that they can create investment funds both immediately.

There is after all a fact that may even now be hard to discover in a way out of the emergency, that is, without bringing up issue marks and new spearheading arrangements. General expense cutting and diminishing of costs additionally convey a genuine negative message. The information specialists, such as engineers, who speak to the primary non- material abundance of an association and guarantee its creativity, are left with a negative impression of the organization.

Rather than cut-backs, associations ought to take a key methodology to expenses cut and hold key representatives. The emergency should be considered as an open door. Barret et al. Later this advocacy apparatus may be reached out to all the more profoundly instructed workers and chiefs too. This is something normal, since knowledge management is a new managerial science and it may take some time will be necessary before the various authors and researchers narrow down the theories which are the most representative of what knowledge management is.

Many authors have referred to the various knowledge management approaches. For example Sun Microsystems has referred to the technological approach of knowledge. So there are various schools of thought. From these schools of thought the most important are two; the managerial approach of knowledge management and the critical approach.

Boda, The managerial approach of knowledge management is the school of thought that uses strategies for the adaptation of knowledge management in the companies. This is represented from various authors. The most popular authors are Davenport and Prusak and Nonaka On the other end lies the critical approach school of thought.

Its stance is more critically than the previous one to the theories of knowledge management, management sharing and others. Blackler and Orlikowski are some of the authors that are representing this view. Orlikowski states that there is dichotomy between the various authors and the school of thought that they are representing. These two schools have some various differences. The first major difference is on the way that they see the information systems.

The managerial schools believe that information systems have a crucial role to play on the development of the learning organisation. The information systems are the intermediate between the knowledge and its place of storage. This definition of KM is significant in that it differentiates from typical information management through its first and last stages. On the other hand McDermott seems to disagree with the last. He agrees that the Information technology has helped many businesses to improve their overall performance but he is claiming that there is a great gap existing in the use of information tools and concepts towards the creation of real knowledge management systems.

In addition to this McDermott sets six characteristics of knowledge distinguish it from information. Despres states the information technology codifies the knowledge and is the mean that carries it to the other parts of an organisation or a community. This means that the knowledge codification is the key to understand and share the knowledge. These modes are socialisation from tacit to tacit , externalisation from tacit to explicit , combination from explicit to explicit , and internalisation from explicit to tacit.

This means that the tacit and the explicit have equal validity and that managers shall look after to join these two elements. So the critical side focuses more to the tacit knowledge and how this will be transformed to an explicit one in order the companies to take advantage of this.

Borghoff and Pareschi say that the transformation of the tacit knowledge is risky and some wrong designed procedures may affect negative the existed knowledge. According to von Krogh et al. Thence it is also required to facilitate interpersonal relationships via thorough conversations to enable knowledge. Davenport et al. Furthermore, pilot ventures over a period of a few years will support the change transformed in place for dependable achievement of Knowledge Management to be accomplished.

In a society driven by the presentation of Knowledge Management at a high level of intentional activity of imparting learning to others, while there is an administration driven presentation of Knowledge Management, focused on and proceeded with improvement, adjustment, and application of particular Knowledge Management techniques are into the center Bornemann et al.

In the long run, in a focused on, efficient execution of Knowledge Management, proper routines make potential on the association's vital - key administration - objectives so as to create, disperse, and assess information. Learning incorporation exercises make existing implied and unequivocal information accessible all through the organization while evaluating information exercises demonstrate the learning accessibility and what it has created after some time, in addition to the degree to which information objectives have been arrived, allowed that adapting exists.

Concerning the estimation of what is consistently realised and on the meta-ability of assessing the value of learning something before learning itself starts as indicated by connectivism. To round off, the recipients of advancement and Knowledge Management go about as outside evaluators, while inner assessment — as a center skill tree — can be done by picturing the improvement of the association's center skills and society.

Bornemann et al. There are three operational layers the knowledge level, the data level, and the action level linked with the five core knowledge processes information, documentation, communication, application, and learning to form a basic knowledge management model Bornemann et al. The individual knowledge 30 and the interaction of the individual members of the organization make up the knowledge level, the available documented knowledge constitutes the data level, whereas both knowledge and data levels provide input for the action level so as, firstly, the organization's processes to be enacted, and secondly, its value processes to be created.

Competition at national and international level is growing and customers are becoming more demanding. In this rapidly changing and highly competitive environment, organizations are invited to meet the new requirements that are presented every day. Organizational knowledge and learning can create the conditions of continuous innovation and of competitive advantage. The ablest and best guide to achieve this objective, is the Management of Knowledge and Learning. Many theorists of management believe that the phrase "Knowledge Management" is an oxymoron, to the extent that it is extremely difficult to apply technical and administrative processes to something that is not tangible and is found mainly in the knowledge that people have Hedlund, The objective, however, concerning the management of knowledge, is not the emphasis on human resource management practices, but the creation of that business environment that will facilitate and support a systematic way towards the development processes of knowledge, with the ultimate aim of creating business value.

Mentzas, According to Baumard , Knowledge Management is a new administrative practice related to the systematic and collective creation, diffusion and use of business knowledge, to radically improve organizational efficiency, improve business competitiveness and innovation.

According to this, the organizations should formulate coherent Knowledge Management strategies that are consistent with the objectives of developing their products and services, the desired penetration targets in new markets and their financial aspirations. Knowledge Management regards the acquired management process understanding in general Nonaka and Ikujiro, According to Sveiby , it is difficult to define Knowledge Management.

For this reason the definition effort is based in two separate sections, depending on the activities of researchers, and two levels of approach. The individual parts of Knowledge Management, are related to the following. Information Management. Researchers and users have the appropriate training on computers or IT science and are engaged in the development of information systems and artificial intelligence.

Knowledge is in this case identified within the objects that can be used in the information systems. Person - Human management. Researchers have been focusing in philosophy, psychology, sociology or administration and are dealing with the evaluation and improvement of human skills and human behavior. Knowledge is in this case identified within the procedures, the composition of a group skills, which are constantly changing.

The approach levels, which differ each other in terms of core research and their application are the human approach, according to which the person consists the core of research and implementation; and the approach of the organization, according to which the organization consists the research and core application itself. Davenport and Probst argue that the essence of Knowledge Management is the teamwork on the grounds that the organization is the essence of the composition of people, which seek or follow their personal goals, if neglected or left without guidance.

The mission of the leaders is able to lead people to contribute collectively so as to achieve a common goal, which is translated automatically as sharing information and knowledge with a view to achieving the best possible result. As easy as this may seem in a theoretical level, especially today that the development of information technology enables the collection and sharing of large information, at the level of practical application, there are several difficulties.

He identifies the Knowledge Management as a five-step process, which provides the organization with the ability to create, evaluate, express, support and extend the base of core competencies. More precisely, the creation of knowledge refers to the ability of the organization to develop innovative, useful ideas and effective solutions.

The creation of knowledge is not necessarily a start from scratch, thus, it can be derived from existing information, the interaction deriving from the information, or the approach from another angle, or even as a result of applied efforts. The second phase, the confirmation of Knowledge refers to the extent that an organization can affect knowledge and effectiveness. During this phase, it is necessary to update knowledge, carried out with the continuous interaction between technologies and technical and human resources of the organization.

Essentially, it is the continuous redefinition of data and information after verification. The Knowledge codification refers to the variety of ways - with their codes entitled Knowledge, represented so that it becomes possible to provide a spread beyond the members of the organization. Coding data, information and knowledge can be different, depending on the organization, resulting in the presence of difficulties in the identification and recognition.

Thus, the organization must choose a definite way for coding, to avoid any confusion or misunderstanding. The diffusion of knowledge is achieved by the interaction of technologies, technical and human resources of an organization. The vertical diffusion of knowledge of the leaders of the organization to employees, has until now been proved as non - constructive. Instead, the horizontal diffusion of knowledge among employees, by e-mail or intranet, allowing interactions between staff of different departments of the organization, discussions and interpretation of existing information from different angles, is indirectly increasing the possibilities of reviewing of the authenticity of knowledge.

The last phase of Knowledge Management Bhatt, , is the application of knowledge, which refers to products, processes and services of the organization. It should be noted there is a risk smoldering in addressing Knowledge Management, concerning one's own learning rather than group learning.

In this case, there is no knowledge transmission because the focus deals with individuals resulting in lack of information exchange and thus lack in organizational learning. However, there are some steps and conditions that ensure the success of any Knowledge Management policy.

Below are the strategic steps for implementing Knowledge Management. Bhatt, Determination of business strategic goals. In the case of creation of important strategic goals, Knowledge Management has to gain maximum results. The strategic objectives stated in the business plan of the organization need to be followed by a SWOT analysis that has to be conducted to determine the priorities and objectives. This is crucial, because in most cases the results of Knowledge Management are not obvious in terms of relative cost or other quantitative characteristics, so as to ensure full commitment of management.

Therefore, Knowledge Management team should present as soon as possible the first results. Diagnosis and identification of knowledge gaps, future requirements on knowledge and knowledge of the specific characteristics of the organization. Well-defined strategic objectives have to be analyzed in order to provide an appropriate framework for analyzing gaps in current knowledge and future knowledge needs of the organization.

Knowledge gaps may arise from lack of people, lack of technology or both. The knowledge gaps need to be filled with a list of techniques, such as internal training, hiring new staff, acquire new skills and new knowledge.

Possible knowledge gaps could be identified from problems that have been reported in the past, after being discussed with senior management and staff of the organization. During this process, an excess in knowledge may also arise. Implementation of a culture change policy. In today's competitive work environment many employees do not feel safe in their work places and they are usually concealing their knowledge, which could be used to improve efficiency.

This is probably the biggest hurdle for every Knowledge Management activity. People must feel free to exchange ideas and make mistakes. All these minor but still very critical daily activities help an organization to acquire new business knowledge and to build a Knowledge Management culture. Implementation of a knowledge-mapping tool. The mapping of knowledge is a process that aims to link knowledge description with the people who possess it.

In most cases it is difficult to map the knowledge itself while it is easier to create links between a brief description of knowledge and its holders. However, knowledge in an organization exists in many forms and is being met in various subject areas such as management, production, marketing or sales.

Thus, the knowledge to describe and fully understand the processes of the organization, should be formulated in a familiar and easy language in the form of a code. This process is called knowledge codification. There are many ways of creating coding and the chosen one every time should include particular characteristics of knowledge of the specific organization. For example, a simple knowledge codification could be implicit, explicit, teachable, non-teachable, documented, non-documented, simple, complex, functional, non- functional, theoretic or practical.

Therefore, a knowledge map would be created. The creation of a knowledge map does not necessarily reflect the knowledge of an organization, as presented or implied in the organization charts. Hsu and Shen, One of the most common and most important decisions one has to take in order to shape organizational Knowledge Management strategy is to focus on the orientation strategy.

Orientation strategy can be described based on two dimensions that help understanding and explanation of their orientation. Choi and Lee, During systematic strategy, the orientation and focus of the management of knowledge is identified within the system. This strategy emphasises the capacity of an organization to support the creation, storage, sharing and use of explicitly documented organizational knowledge.

The strategy based on this dimension, is in most cases focused on coding and storing knowledge. Typically, knowledge can be codified through information technology. The codified knowledge is more likely to be reused. In this approach the emphasis is strictly based on predefined rules anything that must be done in all possible conditions. This strategy emphasises knowledge sharing through interpersonal interactions. The key elements of this strategy are the communication processes across the spectrum of the social network of the organization such as expert groups or project teams that contribute to knowledge sharing through interpersonal contacts.

This strategy aims to acquire internal and opportunistic knowledge and the informal sharing of it, since knowledge can be acquired in various ways by experienced and competent employees. Takahashi and Vandenbrink, The systemic approach on the one hand, emphasises on the codified knowledge used in Knowledge Management processes, focusing on encoding and storage of knowledge through IT and contributes to the gathering of formal knowledge sharing.

The human — centric approach on the other hand, emphasises on dialogue through social networks and personal contacts, focuses on knowledge acquisition through experienced and capable people and contributes to the acquisition of informal knowledge sharing. Systemic strategy corresponds to grade coding and storage of organizational knowledge, to the extent of access and use of explicit knowledge.

The human - centric strategy corresponds to the acquisition and sharing of tacit knowledge mainly through interpersonal interaction as in the case of employees' conversation and constructive dialogue. Hsu and Shen, 2. The market in which they operate is constantly changing and the uncertainty increases as competitors multiply, technologies evolve, consumer demands and changing products and services become quickly outdated.

Therefore, organizations that invest in Knowledge Management, become able to cope and overcome changes successfully while development is occurring in the foreground tending to influence the way forward. Today the success of an organization is incorporated in its operating systems, with knowledge-based activities in order to develop new products and services and create closer relationships with its customers, who are the organization's orientation.

With the adoption of these procedures, the modern enterprise is seeking to acquire a long- term and long promising competitive advantage. Most organizations have understood that knowledge is the way according to which they may be helped in order to cope with the changing developments in the marketplace, posing the right questions and following the right moves that will lead to the finding of the appropriate responses. Knowledge Management is essential in order for an organization to apply the appropriate knowledge so as to solve a problem.

Bhatt, Knowledge can help drastically in decision making. Experience from previous procedures, the initiatives taken, any failures or successes generally, show that the efforts made can be accessed and revoked, in order for them to contribute significantly to the decision making. The environment in which an organization is operating, is characterised by the existence and function of many competing organizations.

To survive, an organization must keep up with developments in order to address any threats. This is a long and difficult process where the Knowledge Management can be a valuable tool for the rebuttal and degradation of any competitors. Bhatt, In cases of retirement, resignation or dismissal of an employee, the organization may lack in experience and specialised knowledge possessed. In particular, in cases of dismissal or when the employee resigns, knowledge and experience can be exploited by the new company by which the employee will be hired.